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(324 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter
[German Version] Eli was priest of the transregionally significant sanctuary of Shiloh in the 11th century (1 Sam 1–4). His name means “the highest” (cf. Ugar. 'lyn, Heb. 'lywn; the theophoric element – presumably yw – has been omitted, cf. the name 'lyw attested in inscriptions as well as 'lw in parallel to yhwh in 1 Sam 2:10). Eli's sons, also priests, bore Egyptian names: Phinehas and Hophni. They appear as dishonorable bachelors; Eli, in contrast, as honorable, if fallible…


(972 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter
[German Version] ( ‘edôm) means “reddish,” and the parallel term Seir ( sē'îr) “rough,” probably the brush in the mountains. They designate a landscape or ethnicity south of ¶ the Dead Sea: in the first instance, to the southeast, between Wādī l-Ḥasā and the Gulf of Aqaba, but also in the Wādī l-'Araba and the southern Negeb. “Seir” occurs first in the Amarna Letters (Amarna; EA 288.26; mid-14th cent.) and in a place list of Ramses II (mid-13th cent.), “Edom” in a letter from the eighth year of Merneptah…


(339 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter
[German Version] is the oasis on the western shore of the Dead Sea. Its combination of a warm climate and plentiful water ( En, construct of ‘Ayin/עַיִן, “spring”) has long offered ideal living conditions for people, a few animals (including panthers, cliff badgers, ibexes [Heb. gedi, “goat”), and plants (wine, henna [Song 1:14], dates [Sir 24:14], balsam [Jos. Ant. IX 7; Bell. IV 468; Pliny, Naturalis historia 12.113; Šabb. 26a]). A pilgrimage sanctuary with a walled-in court and a large main room (20 × 5 m) was l…


(681 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter
[German Version] The biblical picture of Samuel (Heb. לאֵוּמשְׁ/ šĕmû’ēl), a figure at the transition from premonarchic Israel (II, 1) to the monarchy, is extremely complex. In the relatively earliest source, 1 Samuel, and then afterwards he fills an extraordinary spectrum of roles: priest (1 Sam 2f.; 7:9; cf. his Levitical descent in 1 Chr 6:12, 18 [Eng. 6:27, 33]), prophet (Prophets and Prophecy: II; 1 Sam 3:20; 9:1–10:16; 19:18–24; 28; Jer 15:1; Ps 99:6; Sir 46:15, 20; Acts 3:24), judge (Judges of Isr…


(1,558 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter | Lattke, Michael
[German Version] I. Bible 1. Literary analysis. The primary source for Solomon (Heb. ְׁשׁלמה/ šĕlōmōh) is 1 Kgs 1–12. It has a chiastic structure centered on the account of the design, construction, and dedication of the Jerusalem temple (II, 4; 1 Kgs 5–8); it is flanked by descriptions of Solomon’s illustrious wisdom and reign (1 Kgs 3f. and 9f.), with narratives of his rise and decline constituting the outward framework (1 Kgs 1f. and 11f.). This overall structure is a product of Deuteronomistic historiography (Deuteronomistic History), which views the history of Israel essentially as centere…

Joseph/Joseph Narrative

(996 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter
[German Version] “Joseph,” Heb. יוֹסֵף/ yôsep, means “He (God) adds.” In the Bible, half-a-dozen people bear the name, including Mary's husband in the New Testament. In the Old Testament, the son of Jacob (I) and Rachel stands out (Gen 30:23f.). He is the eponymous ancestor of the major tribe of Israel (Tribes of Israel), whose chief heir, in turn, is Ephraim (Gen 38). Joseph/Ephraim settled in the central mountains of Palestine (Josh 16; 1 Kgs 4:8) and claimed a central role in (northern) Israel (Gen 37:5–11; 49:22–26; Deut 33:13–17; Judg 5:14; 1 Kgs 11:26; 12…


(783 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter

Deuteronomistic History

(2,804 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter
[German Version] I. Basis, Dispute and Development of the Hypothesis of a Deuteronomistic History – II. Arrangement of the Content – III. Historical Locus and Importance for the Theology of History The Deuteronomistic History (DeutHist) is not a canonical entity, but a scholarly hypothesis. It combines the book Deut from the “Torah” section of the canon with the books Joshua, Judges, 1 & 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2 Kings from the “former prophets” section. These biblical books depict the history of Israel from the time of Moses to the Exile. I. Basis, Dispute and Development of the Hypot…


(3,786 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter | Klauck, Hans-Josef | Leeb, Rudolf | Jacobs, Martin | Dan, Joseph | Et al.
[German Version] …

Righteousness, Justice

(6,688 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter | Reumann, John | Luz, Ulrich | Strohm, Theodor
1. OT 1.1. Term The Heb. root ṣdq is as comprehensive in meaning as the Eng. “right(eous),” Ger. (ge)re…

Isaiah, Book of

(2,801 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter
1. Overall Structure Ever since B. Duhm’s epochal commentary (1892), scholars have generally divided the Book of Isaiah into three parts: • ¶ Isaiah I, chaps. 1–39, according to the dating in 1:1; 6:1; 36:1, the testament of the prophet Isaiah from the eighth century b.c.; • Isaiah II (Deutero-Isaiah), chaps. 40–55, which the r…


(567 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter
[English Version] , hebr. שָׁאוּל. Der erste König Israels (Königtum in Israel) ist außerbibl. überhaupt nicht, innerbibl. indes mit hinreichender Deutlichkeit bezeugt. Die Staatenbildung in Israel (: II.,1., a) hatte sich vor ihm schon angekündigt und entsprach den gesellschaftlichen und ökonomischen Bedürfnissen im ausgehenden 2.Jt. Um 1000 v.Chr. gelang es S., einem stattlichen Mann aus vornehmer Familie (1Sam 9,1f.), die Stämme des mittelpaläst. und nordtransjordanischen Berglands zu einen (Juda, …


(1,338 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter | Lattke, Michael
[English Version] I. Bibel 1.Literarischer Befund.Primärquelle über S. (hebr. שְׁלמֹה) ist der Abschnitt 1Kön 1–12. Er ist chiastisch aufgebaut: Den Kern bilden die Berichte von Planung, Bau und Weihung des Jerusalemer Tempels (: II.,4.; 1Kön 5–8), darum lagern sich Schilderungen der glänzenden Weisheit und glanzvollen Herrschaft S.s (1Kön 3f. und 9f.), den äußeren Rahmen bilden Erzählungen von seinem Aufstieg und Abstieg (1Kön 1f. und 11f.). Dieses Gesamtbild verdankt sich dtr. Geschichtsschreibung (De…


(578 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter
[English Version] . Als Gestalt am Übergang vom vorstaatl. zum staatl. Israel (: II.,1.) gibt S. (hebr. שְׁמוּאֵל) in der Bibel ein höchst facettenreiches Bild ab. Schon in der relativ ältesten Quelle, 1Sam, und auch danach verkörpert er verschiedenste Rollen: Er ist Priester (1Sam 2f.; 7,9; vgl. sein Levitentum in 1Chr 6,12.18), Prophet (: II.; 1Sam 3,20; 9,1–10; 16; 28; Jer 15,1; Ps 99,6; Sir 46,15.20; Apg 3,24), Richter (1Sam 7,15; 12,1–5; Sir 46,14; Apg 13,20), Retter (1Sam 7,7–14; Sir 46,16–18), v.a. »Königs…