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(88 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(p., lit. “palace-curtain”), the term applied in the sources for the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳs and the Rūm Sald̲j̲ūḳs to the great tent carried round by the sultans, regarded, with the čatr or miẓalla [ q.v.], as one of the emblems of sovereignty. It is described in such sources as Rāwandī, Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn and Ibn Bībī as being red, the royal colour, and as having internal curtained compartments forming rooms. (Ed.) Bibliography İ.H. Uzunçarşılı, Osmanlı devleti teşkilâtina medhal, Istanbul 1941, 31, 37, 121 Sukumar Ray, Bairam Khan, Karachi 1992, 232.

Ḳubbe Wezīri

(130 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.) “vizier of the dome” was the name given, under the Ottomans, to the members of the imperial Dīwān ( dīwān-i hümāyūn [ q.v.]) who came together on several mornings each week around the Grand Vizier in the chamber of the Topkapi Palace called Ḳubbe alti̊ because it was crowned by a dome. The ḳubbe wezīrleri were the ḳāḍī-ʿaskers [ q.v.] of Rumelia and Anatolia, the ḳāḍī of Istanbul, the defterdār [see daftardār ], the nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲l [ q.v.], the ag̲h̲as of the Janissaries, the commander of the cavalry and, when he happened to be in the capital, the ḳapudan pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. This institution wa…


(266 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or D̲j̲andār, the name given to certain guards regiments serving the great Sald̲j̲ūḳs and subsequent dynasties. Attached to the royal household, they provided the sovereign’s bodyguard, and carried out his orders of execution. Their commander, ¶ the amīr d̲j̲āndār , was a high-ranking officer; some of them are reported as becoming atābaks [ q.v.]. Under the Sald̲j̲ūḳs of Rūm, they formed an élite cavalry guard, and wore their swords on a gold-embroidered baldric. At the accession of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Kayḳobād I in 616/1219 he is said to have had a bodyguard of 120 d̲j̲āndārs (Ibn Bībī, El-Evāmi…


(469 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Arabic term for a man whose foot-joints can be heard cracking when he walks, but often found as a proper name in the first days of Islam and particularly among the Tamīmīs; the last to bear this name seems to have been al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ b. Ḍirār al-Tamīmī, chief of police for ʿĪsā b. Mūsā [ q.v.], governor of Kūfa from 132/750 to 147/764 (Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, ii, 465; al-Ṭabarī, iii, 131, 347). Among those who bore this name, apart from al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ b. ʿAmr [see the following article] and the poets cited by al-Marzubānī ( Muʿd̲j̲am , 329-30), especially noteworthy was the Co…

Idrīs b. al-Ḥusayn

(185 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. Abī Numayy , Abū ʿAwn , S̲h̲arīf of Mecca in the early 11th/17th century. He was born in 974/1566, and became S̲h̲arīf and governor of the Ḥid̲j̲āz in 1011/1602-3 after his brother Abū Ṭālib and in conjunction with his nephew Muḥsin. This division of power ended, however, in a fierce internal family dispute, apparently over Idrīs’s retinue and followers ( Ḵh̲uddām ), and in 1034/1624-5 the family deposed Idrīs from the governship of the Ḥid̲j̲āz in favour of Muhsin. The conflict was resolved by a truce, during the time of which Idr…

al-ʿAbbās b. Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn

(452 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, eldest son of Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn [ q.v.]. When the latter set off for the conquest of Syria, he entrusted the government of Egypt to al-ʿAbbās, his designated heir, but al-ʿAbbās was very soon persuaded to take advantage of his father’s absence to supplant him. Warned by the vizier al-Wāsiṭī, Ibn Ṭūlūn got ready to return to Egypt, and his son, after having emptied the treasury and got together considerable sums of money, went off with his partisans to Alexandria, and then to Barḳa. As soon as he got back…

Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-Umarāʾ

(211 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of a celebrated Persian collection of biographies of Muslim Indian commanders from the reign of the Mug̲h̲al Emperor Akbar (963-1014/1556-1605) till the time of its author, Ṣamṣām al-Dawla Mīr ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ S̲h̲āh-Nawāz K̲h̲ān Awrangābādī (1111-71/1700-58). Born at Lahore, he soon settled in the Deccan in the service of the first Niẓām of Ḥaydarābād [ q.v.], Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf-Ḏj̲āh. and filled offices in Berār [ q.v.] and then as Dīwān or chief minister of the Deccan. His policy in the latter post aimed at checking the growing influences in that state …


(311 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Rīda, Rēda) is the name of a number of places in ʿAsīr, in the Yemen and in Ḥaḍramawt. The word rayd (pl. aryād/ruyūd ) means a ledge of a mountain, resembling a wall, or a resting upon ledges of mountains (Lane, Lexicon , s.v.). At least in Ḥaḍramawt, it is the term for the centre of the territory of a Bedouin tribe, which is generally a depression in the rocky plateau (D. van der Meulen and H. von Wissmann, Hadramaut , some of its mysteries unveiled, Leiden 1932, 22, n. 1). There are several places of this name ( Rēda) in Hadramawt: Raydat al-Ṣayʿar, Raydat Arḍayn, Raydat al-ʿIbād, Raydat …


(623 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(also ḥaramgāh , zanāna , etc.), a term applied to those parts of a house to which access is forbidden, and hence more particularly to the women’s quarters. In ancient Arabia women seem to have enjoyed some measure of personal freedom, though the use of the veil was not unknown, especially in towns. It became commoner after the advent of Islam, with the adoption, on the one hand of a stricter code of sexual morality, on the other of a more urban way of life. The provisions of t…


(77 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Abū Saʿīd Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Ṭāʾī, ʿAbbāsid commander of the middle decades of the 3rd/9th century, who presumably derived his professional nisba from service along the Byzantine frontiers ( t̲h̲ug̲h̲ūr [ q.v.], sing, t̲h̲ag̲h̲r ; al-Samʿānī, Ansāb , ed. Ḥaydarābād, iii, 136-7, gives two scholars with this same nisba, connected respectively with Tarsus and Adana). Nothing is known of him beyond the fact that he was the patron of his fellow-Ṭāʾī, the poet al-Buḥturī [ q.v.]. (Ed.)

Sīdī Ballā

(261 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh Ibn ʿAzzūz al-ḳuras̲h̲ī al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī al-Marrākus̲h̲ī , a cobbler of Marrakesh to whom thaumaturgic gifts were attributed and who died in an odour of sanctity in 1204/1789. His tomb, situated in his own residence at Bāb Aylān, has been continuously visited because of its reputation of curing the sick. Although he had not received a very advanced education, Ibn ʿAzzūz nevertheless succeeded in leaving behind an abundant body of works, dealing mainly with my…


(70 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) “those which give praise”, the name given to the group of Ḳurʾānic sūras from the middle Medinan peirod, LVII, LIX, LXI, LXII, LXIV, so-called because they begin with the phrase sabbaḥa or yusabbiḥu li ’llāh . The designation seems to be old; cf. Muslim, Zakāt , trad. 119. See further, Nöldeke-Schwally, G des Q, i, 186, 245, ii, 45; and ḳurʾān , 7, towards the end. (Ed.)


(1,305 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or k̲h̲ifāḍ (a.), female excision, corresponding to the circumcision of boys ( k̲h̲atn or k̲h̲itān [ q.v.], terms which may be applied equally to both sexes). There is no mention of it in the Ḳurʾān, but more or less authentic ḥadīt̲h̲ s attest to the practice in pre-Islamic Arabia and in a certain measure justify it. Tradition attributes to the Prophet the expression muḳaṭṭiʿat al-buẓūr “cutter of clitorises”, and the following words addressed to Umm ʿAṭiyya, id̲h̲ā k̲h̲afaḍti ( k̲h̲afatti ) fa-ʾas̲h̲immī wa-lā tanhakī (i.e., do not excise everything), fa- ʾinnahu adwaʾ li’l-wad̲j̲…


(430 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ḥamd (> Aḥmad ) b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm b. al-K̲h̲aṭṭāb Abū Sulaymān al-K̲h̲aṭṭābī al-Bustī , traditionist of S̲h̲āfiʿī tendencies and poet, who is said to have been a descendant of Zayd b. al-K̲h̲aṭṭāb, brother of ʿUmar, but this genealogy has been questioned. Born at Bust in 319/931, he travelled throughout the Muslim world, from K̲h̲urāsān and Transoxania to ʿIrāḳ and the Ḥid̲j̲āz, “in search of learning” and also engaged in trade; he studied, particularly in Bag̲h̲dād, with famous teach…


(78 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, also Göksün , a small town in south-eastern Turkey, the ancient Kokussos, W. Armenian Gogi̊son, now the chef-lieu of an ilçe of the vilâyet of Maraş, pop. (1960) 3697. It is the ‘Cocson’, ‘Coxon’, where the army of the First Crusade rested for three days in the autumn of 1097 (see A History of the Crusades , ed. K. M. Setton, i, Philadelphia 1955, 297-8). (Ed.) Bibliography İA, s.v. Göksun (by Besim Darkot), with full bibliography.


(280 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(etymology uncertain: not Pand̲j̲ābī, possibly Persian; in Urdu, malangi , masc. = “salt worker”, fem. = “loose, wanton woman”), a term used in Muslim India, including in the Pand̲j̲āb but also in the Deccan, to denote wandering dervishes of the Ḳalandarī, bī-s̲h̲arʿ or antinomian type [see ḳalandar , ḳalandariyya ]. D̲j̲aʿfar S̲h̲arīf [ q.v.] at one place of his Ḳānūn-i Islām puzzlingly names their founder as D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Buk̲h̲ārī, Mak̲h̲dūm-i D̲j̲ahāniyān-i D̲j̲ahāngas̲h̲t [ q.v.], and at another, as D̲j̲amand̲j̲atī, a disciple of Zinda S̲h̲āh Madār ( Islam in India, ed. W. C…


(101 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, sum, total, from the Arabic fad̲h̲ālika , “and that [is]”, placed at the bottom of an addition to introduce the result. Besides its arithmetical use, the term was also employed for the summing up of a petition, report, or other document, as for example for the summarized statements of complaints presented at the Dīwān-i humāyūn [ q.v.]. By extension it acquired the meaning of compendium and is used, in this sense, in the titles of two well-known works on Ottoman history, written in the 17th century by Kātib Čelebi and in the 19th by Aḥmad Wefīḳ Pas̲h̲a [ qq.v.]. (Ed.)


(155 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), pl. marāḥil , in mediaeval Islamic usage, a stage of travel, normally the distance which a traveller can cover in one day; it was, therefore, ¶ obviously a variable measurement of length, dependent on the ease or difficulty of the terrain to be crossed. The classical Arabic geographers frequently use the term. Al-Muḳaddasī [ q.v.] in one place (206) gives as his norm 6 to 7 farsak̲h̲s or parasangs (the farsak̲h̲ [ q.v.] being roughly 6 km.), and has an ingenious orthographical notation for marāḥil of less than 6 or more than 7 farsak̲h̲s (cf. A. Miquel, La géographie humaine du monde m…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Lālā

(31 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Melek-Nihād (II), Ottoman Grand Vizier, who served Sultān Meḥemmed III [ q.v.] for ten days only and then died on 19 Rabīʿ I 1004/22 November 1595. (Ed.)


(14,774 words)

Author(s): Ed. | Spuhler, F. | Golvin, L. | Allgrove, J.
(a.), pls. busṭ/busuṭ , absiṭa , which implies the general meaning of extensiveness (thus in Ḳurʾān, LXXI, 18), is a generic term for carpet, more specifically, one of fairly large dimensions. Any kind of carpet with a pile is called a ṭinfisa if it is decorated with multicoloured bands, a zarbiyya ( zirbiyya , zurbiyya , pl. zarābī cf. Ḳurʾān, LXXXVIII, 16); if it is decorated with a relief design, a maḥfūra whilst a prayer carpet is called a sad̲j̲d̲j̲āda (modern Turkish seccade ), and the collective sad̲j̲d̲j̲ād is sometimes used as a generic term (on the …
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