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Hegesander

(324 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] [1] Athen. rhetor, middle of 4th cent. BC Athenian rhetor, son of Hegesias from the deme Sunium and brother of  Hegesippus [1], in 361/60 BC treasurer (Aeschin. In Tim. 55f.; 95) of the strategos Timomachus and despite the latter's sentence for bribery shortly afterwards   tamias of Athena (Aeschin. In Tim. 110f. and schol.), implying that he was a rich man. In the trial against Timocrates  Aeschines [2] most likely slanderously accused him of illegal enrichment. H. was considered an opponent of Aristop…

Cercidas

(694 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Κερκιδᾶς, Κερκίδας; Kerkidâs, Kerkídas). [German version] [1] Arcadian orator, supposedly acting in the political interest of Philippus II C., an Arcadian orator mentioned by  Demosthenes [2] (Dem. Or. 18,295) in his famous ‘list of traitors’ in the speech ‘On the Crown’ and supposedly acting in the political interest of  Philippus II (similar also Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 119; Pol. 18,14,1-2). The conclusiveness of the accusations by Demosthenes and Theopompus can no longer be verified. C. was descended from a rich…

Polycles

(443 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πολυκλῆς/ Polyklês). [German version] [1] Athenian councillor 367/6 BC Son of Polycrates from the deme of Anagyrous; Athenian councillor in 367/6 BC (Agora XV,14) and several times trierarch and syntrierarch (IG II2 1609,105 f.; 1611,371; 1622b,238 and 1630,6: again 327/6-325/4 BC). P. did not take over his trierarchy until a long time after the appointed date, for which he was taken to court by Apollodorus [1] in 359 BC (Dem. Or. 50). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 465 f.  Develin, Nr. 2567  PA 11988. [German version] [2] Sculptor in bronze from Argos, 4th cent. BC Scul…

Cephisodotus

(988 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κηφισόδωτος; Kēphisódōtos). [German version] [1] Athenian stratēgós, killed in 405/4 BC in the battle of Aigos Potami Athenian stratēgós, killed in 405/4 BC in the battle of  Aigos Potami or executed afterwards with other Athenian prisoners of war (Xen. Hell. 2,1,16-32; Diod. Sic. 13,105f.; Plut. Alcibiades 36,4; Plut. Lysander 13,1) [1]. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian stratēgós, friend of  Charidemus, whom he unexpectedly faced as enemy in 360/59 BC Athenian stratēgós from the Acharnae deme; friend of  Charidemus [2], on whose request he …

Mantias

(261 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Μαντίας; Mantías). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 360/359 BC Son of Mantitheus of Thoricus In 377/76 BC tamias of the shipyards (IG II2 1622,435f). In 360/359 BC Athenian strategos of a naval division and auxiliary troops sent to assist the Macedonian claimant Argaeus against Philip II. By delaying in Methone, he was co-responsible for Argaeus's defeat (Diod. Sic. 16,2,6 and 16,3,5; in c. 358/7). Details about his family are distorted by diabolḗ (‘slander, calumny’) in Demosthenes (Or. 39 and 40). For his trierarchies cf. IG II2 1604,10 and 46 as well as 1609,61f. Engels, Joh…

Lachares

(480 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Λαχάρης; Lacháres). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and confidant of Cassander Athenian, demagogue and confidant of Cassander. L. succeeded, with a mercenary force, in establishing a rulership in Athens, probably from early in 300 BC to early in 295 (Olympiad Chronicle FGrH 257a F 1-4; Plut. Demetrius 33; however, IG II2 646 indicates 294 BC), which is described in ancient sources as a tyrannis, although fundamental organs of democracy continued to operate. Following the death of Cassander (297), L. managed to hold out, but was forced …

Milyas

(216 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Trustee of the legacy of Demosthenes Milyas (Μιλύας; Milýas), a confidant of Demosthenes [2], administered his inheritance. In a legal dispute between Demosthenes and his guardians, the latter accused M. of irregularities. Aphobus demanded that the presumed slave M. be handed over for interrogation under torture. Demosthenes refused, on the grounds that M. had already been freed by his father (cf. Dem. Or. 29). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Schäfer, Vol. 4, supplements, 1885, 82-85 Traill, PAA 653990. [German version] [2] Region in southern Asia…

Callippus

(640 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Κάλλιππος; Kállippos). [German version] [1] Athenian student of Plato Athenian student of  Plato, who took Callistratus, who had been sentenced in an   eisangelía proceeding, to Thasos in 361 BC on the order of the stratēgós Timomachus (Dem. Or. 50,47-52). In 357 C. evaded charges in Athens by accompanying  Dion [I 1] during his enforced return to Sicily (Plut. Dion 22,5 and 54,1; Pl. Ep. 7, 333e). Though initially held in high esteem by Dion as a philosophical and political advisor and ‘condottiere’, C. turned against Dion in 3…

Eubulus

(967 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὔβουλος; Eúboulos). [German version] [1] Athenian about 400-330 BC E., son of Spintharus of the deme Probalinthus, c. 400 to before 330 BC, possibly identical with the Athenian who in 369 applied for permission for Xenophon to return (Ister FGrH 334 F 32) and a thesmothete attested in Athens about 370/69 (SEG 19,133,4). If that is the case, he was a member of the Areopagus. After 354/3 he achieved significant political influence in Athens as an administrator of the theorikon treasury, and because of his abilities as an orator, his membership in the Areopagus and good con…

Autocles

(195 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Αὐτοκλῆς; Autoklês). [German version] [1] Strategos 425-3 BC, arranged a truce with Sparta together with Nicias in 423 BC Of Anaphlystus (IG I3 370,17), son of Tolmaeus. Strategos in 425/24 (with Nicias i.a., before Cythera, Thuc. 4,53,1), 424/23 and 418/17 BC (IG ibid.). Together with Nicias i.a., he arranged a truce with Sparta in 423 (Thuc. 4,119,2; Schol. Aristoph. Equ. 796). Traill, PAA 239060. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Davies, 2717. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor and strategos, 472/1 BC; peace envoy in Sparta Son of Strombychides from the deme of E…

Thymochares

(148 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Θυμοχάρης/ Thymochárēs). [German version] [1] From Athens, naval commander, c. 400 BC Athenian, strategos of a fleet defeated by Agesandridas at Eretria [1] in 411/10 BC (Thuc. 8,95). T. was also defeated by Agesandridas in a second sea battle (Xen. Hell. 1,1,1). Traill, PAA 518930. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] From Athens, follower of Lycurgus [9], second half of the 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Phaedrus [2] from the Sphettus deme, c. 360-300 BC, follower of Lycurgus [9], in 329/8 epimelētḗs of the Amphiaraus Games of Oropus (IG VII 4254, 29 f. = [5. no. 50]), str…

Menecles

(381 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Μενεκλῆς/ Meneklês). [German version] [1] Athenian lawyer, 350 and 347 BC Athenian. In 350 and 347 BC he was synegoros for Boeotus ( Mantitheus [3]) and his mother Plangon in two lawsuits (Dem. Or. 39,2; 40,9f.; 32). Allegedly a sycophant, Menecles was himself accused by Ninus's son. The prosecution speech (Din. fr. 33 Conomis) was attributed to Dinarchus. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Schäfer, Beilagen 1885, 211-226 PA 9908 Traill, PAA 643135. [German version] [2] Greek historian and antiquarian, 2nd cent. BC Menecles from Barca in northern Africa, a Greek histo…

Polyeuctus

(609 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πολύευκτος/ Polýeuktos). [German version] [1] Son of the Athenian Themistocles Third son of Themistocles and his first wife Archippe, daughter of Lysander of Alopece (who adopted the second son, Diocles); nothing is known of his life. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Davies, 6669  R. Frost, Plutarch's Themistocles. A Historical Commentary, 1980, ad 32,1  Traill, PAA, 778325. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, 2nd half of 4th cent. BC Son of Sostratus of the Sphettus deme, Athenian rhetor of the 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC, in the circle of Demost…

Hermias

(778 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Ἑρμίας; Hermías). [German version] [1] Around 350 BC tyrant over Atarneus and Assos (or Hermeias) Around 350 BC successor of Eubulus as tyrant over  Atarneus and  Assos (Diog. Laert. 5,3), possibly pupil of Plato (Str. 13,1,57; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 250; by contrast Pl. Ep. 6,322e). Along with other philosophers he brought Aristotle to the court and married him to his niece  Pythias. After the Persians had reconquered Egypt in 343/342, H. considered his region to be under threat and contacted  Philippus II (…

Euthycrates

(240 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὐθυκράτης; Euthykrátēs). [German version] [1] Olynthian, betrayed his home polis at the instigation of Philippus II E., an Olynthian, allegedly accepted bribes from  Philipus II in 348 BC to betray his home polis, thus bearing part of the guilt for its destruction. Because of this, E. was ostracized by Athens (Diod. Sic. 16,53,2; Dem. Or. 8,40; 9,56; 18,295; 19,265-267; Hyp. fr. 76 Jensen). In c. 345-343, he acted as syndikos for the Delians in their dispute with the Athenians regarding the prostasía of the Delphi sanctuary.  Demades' application to lift E.'s ostracism and…

Menestheus

(437 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Μενεσθεύς; Menestheús). [German version] [1] Athenian leader at Troy Son of Peteus, great-grandson of Erechtheus. M. led the contingent of Athenians with fifty ships at Troy. Only Nestor was his equal in marshalling horses and warriors for battle (Hom. Il. 2,552ff.). While Theseus was detained in Hades, the Dioscuri conquered Aphidna and installed M. as king of Athens. Theseus's sons fled to Euboea. Because M. gained the favour of the Athenians, they ousted Theseus on his return (Paus. 1,17,5f.). Accord…

Cineas

(356 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κινέας; Kinéas). [German version] [1] Of Konde, king of the Thessalians, offered military help to Hippias against the Spartans in 511 BC C. of Konde, king ( basileús) of the Thessalians, in 511 BC offered military help in the form of 1,000 Thessalian horsemen to the Athenian tyrant  Hippias [1] when he was threatened by the Spartans, and defeated them at Phalerum (Hdt. 5,63f.; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 19,5). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] Thessalian (c. 350-277 BC), diplomat of king Pyrrhus, expert on Roman aristocracy The Thessalian C. (about 350-277 BC), diplomat…

Iatrocles

(282 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
(Ἰατροκλῆς; Iatroklês). [German version] [1] Athenian, oligarch, 4th cent. BC Athenian, fled in 411 BC after the pro-democratic uprising of the Athenian fleet off Samos with the trierarch  Eratosthenes [1] and others, when the fleet was operating in the Hellespont, to Athens, where he supported the oligarchy (Lys. 12,42). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Traill, PAA 531050. [German version] [2] Son of Pasiphon, approx. 350 BC Son of Pasiphon, in 348 BC captured by  Philippus II during the conquest of  Olynthus but then released (Aeschin. Leg. 15-16…

Diopeithes

(409 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Διοπείθης; Diopeíthēs). [German version] [1] Writer of Old Comedy Author of Old Comedy, only known from inscriptions; probably won at the Dionysia for the first time in 451 BC [1. test.]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 43. [German version] [2] Athenian oracle consultant and fanatical opponent of the enlightenment promoted by Pericles Athenian oracle consultant and fanatical opponent of the enlightenment promoted by  Pericles. Following his petition it was decided in 437/6(?) BC to prosecute those who did not believe in the …

Meidias

(508 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μειδίας/ Meidías). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue, 420-400 BC Athenian demagogue. Nothing certain is known about his role in politics (Pl. Alc. 1,120a-b). Between 420 and 400 BC he was mocked by comedians for embezzlement of public funds, as a sycophant and braggart, and for his breeding of quails and cockerels (Aristoph. Av. 1297f.; Metagenes fr. 12; Phryn. fr. 4; 43; Pl. fr. 85; 116 PCG). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9714 Traill, PAA 637170. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, c. 400-330 BC Athenian rhetor, son of Cephisodorus of Anagyrus, born c…
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