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Hippocrene

(156 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἱπποκρήνη; Hippokrḗnē, Ἵππου κρήνη; Híppou krḗnē, ‘horse spring’; on the names, see [5. 1853]). A well, modern Kriopigadhi, below the eastern peak of the  Helicon to the west of the chapel of Agios Ilias which is built from ancient re-used architectural fragments [1. 186f.; 2. 239f.; 3. 97-99; 4. 621-624]. Documented as early as in Hes. Theog. 1ff. as a place of the Muses and poetic inspiration. From the Hellenistic period, the creation of the well was put down to a kick from the hoof…

Doris

(518 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Δωρίς; Dōrís). [German version] I. Personal names Feminine shortened version of the name Eúdōros and similar, likely often understood as ‘the giver’ (cf. dōron, ‘Gift’). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [I 1] One of the Oceanids, mother of the Nereids One of the  Oceanids, the daughters of Oceanus and of Tethys (Hes. Theog. 350); cf. Polydore and Eudore in Hes. Theog. 354; 360 and the ‘Dorids’ in Goethe's ‘Faust’. Wife of Nereus, mother of the 50  Nereids (Hes. Theog. 241; Apollod. 1,11; Ov. Met. 2,11; 269). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Nereus, one of th…

Melas

(695 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
(Μέλας/ Mélas). [German version] [1] Brother of Oeneus Son of Porthaon (Portheus) and Euryte in Calydon [3], brother of Oeneus, Agrius [1], Alcathous [2], Leucopeus and Sterope (cf. Hom. Il. 14,115ff.; Apollod. 1,63). M.'s eight sons were killed by Tydeus for pursuing their uncle Oeneus (Apollod. 1,76 = Alcmaeonis fr. 4 EpGF). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Son of Phrixus and Chalciope Son of Phrixus and Chalciope [2], the daughter of Aeetes, brother of Argus [I 2], Phrontis and Cytis(s)orus (Apollod. 1,83). In the older myth M., like Argus, prob…

Celones

(80 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κέλωνες; Kélōnes). Tribe, only mentioned in Diod. Sic. 17,110,4, who during Xerxes' campaign were deported from Boeotia to Media, where Alexander the Great still found them in 326 BC. Probably a mix-up with the Euboean  Eretria [1] whose inhabitants were deported by Datis and Artaphernes in 490 BC (Hdt. 6,119,1f.; Str. 16,1,25; Anth. Pal. 7,256; 259; cf. also the Gortuae, mentioned in Curt. 4,12,11, who supposedly followed the Persians from Euboea to Media). Funke, Peter (Münster)

Athens

(11,799 words)

Author(s): Goette, Hans Rupprecht (Athens) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Ἀθῆναι; Athênai; Lat. Athenae). [German version] [1] Capital of Attica This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Dark Ages | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Hellenistic states | Celts | Limes | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Athletes | Attica | Attica | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources Goette, Hans Rupprecht (Athens) [German version] I. Geography A. is the primary location …

Oeroe

(57 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ὠερόη/ Ōeróē). River (present-day Livadostras) which rises on the northern slope of Mt. Cithaeron at Plataeae and flows into the bay of Creusis in the Corinthian Gulf. References: Hdt. 9,51,2; Paus. 9,4,4. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s.v. O., RE 17, 2031-2033  H.G. Lolling, Reisenotizen aus Griechenland: 1876 und 1877, 1989, 556-562  Müller, 528f.

Potniae

(129 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Πότνιαι/ Pótniai, Ποτνιαί/ Potniaí). Boeotian town c. 2 km south of Thebes on the road to Plataeae (Xen. Hell. 5,4,51) at the modern Tachi, with sanctuaries of Demeter, Kore and Dionysus Aigobolos, and a spring whose waters were said to madden horses (Paus. 9,8,1; Str. 9,2,24; Verg. G. 3,266 ff.; Ael. NA 15,25). It was identified with the Hypothebae mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,505 (Str. 9,2,32). At the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, the population of the unfortified town, which belonge…

Hadylium

(80 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἁδύλιον, Ἡδύλε[ι]ον; Hadýlion, Hēdyle[i]on). Mountain range (modern Vetritza) with an average ridge height of 300-400 m (highest point: 543 m) on the northern border of Phocis and Boeotia. In the west at Parapotamioi separated from  Parnassus by the Kephisos. In the east and southeast bordering on the mountains Palaiovouna (ancient Hyphanteion?) and Akontion. Evidence: Dem. Or. 19,148 (with schol.); Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 157; Str. 9,3,16; Plin. HN 4,25; Plut. Sulla 16f. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten, I,2, 425.

Midea

(306 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Μίδεια; Mídeia or Μιδέα; Midéa). [German version] [1] City in Argolis This item can be found on the following maps: Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Mineral Resources City in Argolis, in mythology (cf. Paus. 2,16; 25) one of the most important cities in the region. It had a Mycenaean citadel and palace on a steep hill about 1 km from modern Dendra in the northeast of the Argolian plain. Already abandoned in the Mycenaean period. Tholos tombs with rich finds, several burial chambers. New excavations started in 1983. Th…

Eleutherai

(193 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Attica (Ἐλευθεραί; Eleutheraí). A settlement of Boeotian origins on the pass-route across Mt. Cithaeron from Eleusis [1] to Thebes, near the mod. Kaza; after the cult of Dionysus Eleuthereus was relocated from E. to the southern slopes of the Acropolis in Athens [1] in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC, it belonged to Attica, without, however, ever forming an independent   dḗmos ; Source references: Eur. Supp. 757ff.; Xen. Hell. 5,4,14; Str. 9,2,31; Plin. HN 4,26; Paus. 1,38,8f.; Arr. Anab…

Peteon

(108 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Πετεών; Peteṓn). Boeotian city mentioned in the Homeric Catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,500; after this, all later mentions compiled in [1. 1128; 3. 265]); a settlement belonging to Thebes from the Classical period onwards, situated on the road from Thebes to Anthedon (Str. 9,2,26); its location has been pinpointed as being on the western slope of Messapium near modern Muriki [1. 1129f.] or somewhat further north near Platanakia [2. 233f.] or near Skala Paralimnis on the south-eastern bank of Lake Paralimni [4. 107]. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 E. Kirs…

Harma

(167 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἅρμα; Hárma). Boeotian settlement on the Thebae - Chalcis [1] road between Teumessus and Mycalessus, already listed in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,499; Str. 9,2,26); mentioned in connection with the disappearance of  Amphiaraus or the rescue of  Adrastus [1] (Str. 9,2,11; Paus. 1,34,2; 9,19,4). For some time, H. together with Eleon, Mycalessus and Pharae formed an association of villages subordinate to Tanagra; i…

Libethria, -um

(111 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Λειβήθριον, Λιβήθριον; Leibḗthrion, Libḗthrion). Boeotian mountain range with a cult cave and spring sanctuary of the Muses and ‘L(e)ibethridian’ nymphs c. 7 km from Coronea; either the part of Helicon situated in the south-west between the mountains Megali Lutsa (1,548 m) and Paliovuna (1,747 m) or the mountain range stretching from modern Coronea east to modern Petra. Sources: Paus. 9,34,4; Str. 9,2,25; 10,3,17; Verg. Ecl. 7,21 with Serv. Ecl. 7,21. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geogr. von Griechenland 1, 1862, 236 N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίο…

Messapium

(77 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Μεσσάπιον; Messápion). Mountain chain (modern Ktypas) in the northeast of Boeotia, the eastern edge of which separated the mainland territory of Chalcis on Euboea from the rest of Boeotia. Sources: Aeschyl. Ag. 293 (with schol.); Aeschyl. fr. 55,10 Mette; Strab. 9,2,13; Paus. 9,22,5; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography S. C. Bakhuizen, Salganeus and the Fortifications on Its Mountains, 1970 Philippson/Kirsten 1,2, 497f. P. W. Wallace, Strabo's Description of Boiotia, 1979, 61.

Hylice

(66 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ὑλικὴ λίμνη; Hylikḕ límnē). Boeotian lake west of the Copais, north of Thebes (Str. 9,2,20). Probably the lake formerly called Likeri, and H. again today [2. 494f.; 3. 81f.]. Referring to Nicander (Theriaka 887ff.), Fossey [1. 225-229] identifies H. with the more northerly modern Lake Paralimni, usually equated with the ancient Trephia. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey 2 Philippson/Kirsten 1,2 3 P. W. Wallace, Strabo's Description of Boiotia, 1979.

Erythrae

(596 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Engelmann, Helmut (Cologne)
(Ἐρυθραί; Erythraí). [German version] [1] Boeot. city This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians Boeotian city mentioned as early as Hom. Il. 2,499 (Plin. HN 4,26; Steph. Byz. s.v. E.) on the northern slope of the  Cithaeron range east of Plataeae and Hysiae. Other references: Eur. Bacch. 751; Thuc. 3,24,2; Xen. Hell. 5,4,49; Paus. 9,2,1. According to Str. 9,2,12 mother city of the Ionian E. [2]. Before the battle of Plataeae (479 BC) the Persian camp stretched along the Asopus from E. over …

Lebadea

(917 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles | Boeotia, Boeotians (Λεβάδεια, Λεπάδεια; Lebádeia, Lepádeia). Boeotian city on the south-west end of a bay in a plain which spreads out towards the north-east to the western shore of the former Lake Copais and which encroaches on the northern side of the Helicon [1]. L. lay immediately at the exit of a narrow rock canyon from which the river Hercyna emerges, which is fed by additional rich springs, some of them warm, nea…

Aspledon

(131 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἀσπληδών, Σπληδών; Asplēdṓn, Splēdṓn). Boeotian town, 20 stades north of  Orchomenus on the other side of the Melas; because of their climate, A. and its surrounding area were renamed Εὐδείελος (‘the sunlit’, Str. 9,2,41); the settlement was abandoned because of water shortage (Paus. 9,38,9). A. has been localized near Pyrgus (formerly: Xeropyrgos) (Hom. Il. 2,511; Plin. HN 4,26; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀ. and s.v. Ὑηττός; Nonnus, Dion. 13,94). Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 360-363 J. Knauss,…

Boeotia, Boeotians

(1,481 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Βοιωτία, Βοιωτοί; Boiōtía, Boiōtoi). [German version] A. Topography Region and people in south-eastern Central Greece; with c. 2,500 km2 almost as large as  Attica. Bounded in the south-west by the Corinthian Gulf and in the north-east and east by the Euboean Gulf, B. is the only land bridge between northern and southern Greece and was thus a battleground over and over again ( Chaeronea,  Coronea,  Plataeae). In the south the  Parnes and the  Cithaeron formed a natural border with Attica and Megaris, while in t…

Mycalessus

(226 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Μυκαλησσός; Mykalēssós). Town named in Hom. Il. 2,498 and Hom. H. Apollo 222-224 in northeast Boeotia on the road from Thebae to Chalcis [1] and to the south of the Aniforitis pass near present-day Rhitsona. References: Str. 9,2,11; 26; Stat. Theb. 7,272; 9,281; Nonnus. Dion. 13,77f.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ. A few wall remains [1] and a large necropolis used from the Geometric to the Hellenistic periods [2] testify to its heyday in…
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