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(1,595 words)

Author(s): Heinemann, Evelyn | Haustein, Jörg
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The German word Hexe (witch) derives from the West Germanic hag (fence, gate). In Old High German hagazuzza is the “fence rider” (fem.). During the phase of Christian expansion until the early Middle Ages, missionaries met among Celtic, Germanic and Slavic peoples who knew, in addition to high gods, a number of lower and local divinities. Common to all Germanic peoples was belief in the power of magic, including harmful magic, which was everywhere punished. Gifts of food to good …

Church Unity

(2,522 words)

Author(s): Haustein, Jörg | Brandt, Reinhard | Hardt, Michael
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Theology – III. Ecumenics I. Church History The unity of the church as a theological term does not appear explicitly in the New Testament; it emerged during the early history of the church, although the concept itself is a central NT theme. A further difficulty for a historical presentation is the nature of unity: is it ethical and theological (consensus in faith and conduct; cf. Eph 4:1–6) or juridical and structural (singularity)? The t…

Pflacher, Moses

(177 words)

Author(s): Haustein, Jörg
[German Version] (c. 1548/1549, Emmendingen, Kaufbeuren or Kuchen – Aug 1, 1589, Kempten), Swabian Lutheran theologian. Pflacher studied from 1567 in Tübingen (M.A. Aug 10, 1569), and is then believed to have been rector in Krems, Austria; in 1573 he was ordained in Tübingen; then appointed by Johann v. Ortenau to bring the Reformation to the county, and in 1582 as court preacher; dismissed a year later, after the sovereign prince turned to the Reformed church. In 1585 Pflacher gained his doctorate under J. Andreae in Tübingen (disputation: De iure vocandi ministros ecclesiae), and in …

Demons and Spirits

(6,288 words)

Author(s): Hutter, Manfred | Görg, Manfred | Kollmann, Bernd | Haustein, Jörg | Koch, Guntram | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion (Ancient Near East and Antiquity) – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Iconography – VI. Practical Theology – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. History of Religion (Ancient Near East and Antiquity) The term “demon” as used in European language groups derives from the Greek (δαίμων/ daímōn), where it initially also referred simply to gods (ϑεοί/ theoí; cf. Homer Iliad 1.122) without either positive or negative connotations. The exclusively “negative” charge associate…

Omahe, Chacha

(741 words)

Author(s): Haustein, Jörg
Chacha Omahe was a Kenyan Pentecostal evangelist, church leader, and Bible translator, who pioneered evangelistic work among the Kuria and the Maasai in Kenya. He has also been credited with starting the Ethiopian Pentecostal movement.Chacha belonged to the Kuria people, an ethnic group residing in the Kenya-Tanzania border region east of Lake Victoria. He was born in the Mara region of Tanzania in 1924 and moved to Kenya in the early 1930s. His father had passed away before he was born, and his mother died when he was young. Ch…
Date: 2021-07-16

Bonnke, Reinhard

(1,168 words)

Author(s): Haustein, Jörg | Fischer, Moritz
Reinhard Bonnke (1940–2019) was a German Pentecostal evangelist, best-known for his huge open-air meetings in Africa. Bonnke was born on April 19, 1940 in Königsberg (Kaliningrad), as the fifth child of a Pentecostal church organist and her husband, who was an army officer. His childhood was shaped by the Second World War, the family’s dramatic escape from East Prussia, and four years in a Danish internment camp. Gradually, the family managed to rebuild their lives in Northern Germany, where Bonnke’s father pastored a Pentecostal congregation mainly for refugees.Bonnke’s autobiogr…
Date: 2021-07-16


(136 words)

Author(s): Haustein, Jörg
[English Version] Pflacher, Moses (ca.1548/49 Emmendingen, Kaufbeuren oder Kuchen – 1.8.1589 Kempten), schwäbischer luth. Theologe, 1567 Studium in Tübingen, 10.8.1569 M.A., dann vermutlich Rektor im östr. Krems, 1573 Ordination in Tübingen, danach von Johann von Ortenau zur Reformation der Grafschaft, 1582 zum Hofprediger berufen, ein Jahr später nach Hinwendung des Landesherrn zum Reformiertentum entlassen. 1585 Promotion unter J. Andreae in Tübingen (Disputation: De iure vocandi ministros eccles…