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Chu Hsi

(177 words)

Author(s): Jansen, Thomas
[German Version] (Zhu Xi; Oct 18, 1130, Youxi, Fujian province – Apr 23, 1200, Jianyang, Fujian province), Chinese philosopher and the most important representative of neo-Confucianism (I, 4). Although he passed the civil service examination as a young man ( jinshi 1148), Chu devoted himself mostly to independent studies. The major concept in his philosophy, a synthesis of ideas from his neo-Confucian predecessors and Taoist and Buddhist influences, is the metaphysically-based unity of all being through a transcendent principle of order ( li) which is simultaneously im…


(1,345 words)

Author(s): Reiter, Florian C. | Jansen, Thomas | Wagner, Rudolf G.
[German Version] I. Taoism Taiping signifies “Great Peace,” “General Prosperity,” and “Universal Harmony.” The Book of Universal Harmony ( Taiping Jing) reflects the ideology of the militarily organized Taiping movement (2nd cent. ce) under the leadership of the self-appointed “generals” Zhang ¶ Jue (or Zhang Jiao; d. 184) and his two brothers. The deified Lao Tsu (Taishang Laojun) is said to have revealed the original title Taiping qingling shu to a certain Gan (or Yu) Ji in Shandong (Langye). The wars of the late Han Dynasty, the hardships suffered by the popu…