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Macris

(53 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μάκρις; Mákris). Daughter of Aristaeus [1], wet-nurse of Dionysus on Euboea. After she was banished by Hera she lived on Corcyra, which was named M. after her, in a grotto which was later the place where Iason and Medea got married (Apoll. Rhod. 4,540; 990; 1130ff.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Thaletas

(134 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Θαλήτας/ Thalḗtas; in some authors wrongly Thales, e.g. Paus. 1,14,4; Plut. Lycurgus 4), choral lyricist of the 7th cent. BC, from Gortyn (in Crete). Besides Xenodamus of Cythera, Xenocritus [1] of Locri and others, he was involved in various musical innovations in Sparta in the generation after Terpander (Plut. De musica 9,1134b-c). Like these, he composed paeans (Plut. loc.cit.) and hyporchḗmata (Schol. Pind. Pyth. 2,127). According to later authors of musical theory, he introduced paeonic and cretic rhythms to Sparta…

Myscelus

(82 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μύσκελ[λ]ος/ Mýskel(l)os). Mythical founder of Croton. Son of Alemon of Rhypes in Achaea. According to Ov. Met. 15, 12-59, his foundation of Croton was connected with Heracles [1] (according to others, with the Delphic Apollo): after his home town indicted Myscelus because of his illegal plan to found a city, Heracles turned the black voting stones white at the ballot, thus enabling the foundation (variants in [1. 254f.]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 F. Bömer, P. Ovidius Naso, Metamorphosen, vols. 14-15, 1986.

Phocus

(169 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Φῶκος; Phôkos). [German version] [1] Mythical hero of Aegina Mythical hero of Aegina, son of Aeacus and the Nereid Psamathe; the latter had attempted in vain to stop Aeacus from raping her by turning herself into a seal ( phṓkē): hence the name P. for the child of this union (Hes. Theog. 1004f., Apollod. 3,158 and 160; Pind. Nem. 5,12). In Phocis P. marries the princess Asterodia and gives his name to this region (Apollod. 1,86). P. is ultimately killed by his step-brothers Peleus and Telamon, and he is buried in Aegina (Paus. 2,29,…

Phaeaces

(445 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φαίακες/ Phaíakes, Latin Phaeaces, the Phaeacians). Mythical seafaring people, ruled by King Alcinous [1] (together with 12 other 'kings') and his wife Arete [1]. The P. live on the island of Scheria, to which they were led by Nausithous [1] from Hyperea (Hom. Od. 6,5; 7,58). There are comprehensive accounts of the P. in Hom. Od. books 6-8 and 13. The P. receive Odysseus as their guest after the king's daughter Nausicaa discovers him shipwrecked on the beach. They entertain him lavi…

Nysus

(44 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νύσος/ Nýsos). Male counterpart of Nysa [1]. He is the tutor of Dionysus. He exercises power in Thebes during the latter's campaign to India, but it is seized back again on his return (Hyg. Fab. 131, 167, 179). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Ogygia

(183 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὠγυγία/ Ōgygía, epic -η/ ē). Mythical island on which the goddess Calypso lives (Hom. Od. 1,49ff.; 5,13ff.) and on which Odysseus stayed for almost ten years. In the 'Odyssey', O. is situated in the west (cf. Hom. Od. 5,271ff.) - as omphalòs thalássēs ('navel of the sea', cf. on this aspect [1. 2070ff.]). Since antiquity the geographical position has been a contentious issue: (1) near Crete (Antimachus fr. 142 Wyss); (2) in or near Italy: (a) Gozo (Callim. fr. 470), (b) Lacinium (Scylax 13 GGM), (c) Nymphaea (Apoll. Rhod…

Rhea, Rheia

(196 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ῥέα/ Rhéa, Ῥέη/ Rhéē, Ῥεία/ Rheía, Ῥείη/ Rheíē). Greek goddess; daughter of Uranus and Gaia, sister and consort of her brother Kronos, and by him the mother of Zeus, Hera, Demeter, Hades, Poseidon and Hestia (Hes. Theog. 453-463). Kronos devours the children in order to avoid the danger of being deprived of his power by one of them. However R. hides Zeus in Crete and instead gives Kronos a stone wrapped in swaddling bands. When Zeus is grown up he frees his brothers and sisters and with…

Peirithous

(396 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πειρίθοος, -θους/ Peiríthoos, - thous; Περίθοος, -θους/ Períthoos, - thous; Latin Pirithous, Perithous etc.). Thessalian, later also Attic hero, king of the Lapithae, son of Zeus (Hom. Il. 2,741; 14,317f.; cf. Hom. Od. 11,631; Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 134; Pl. Resp. 391c-d) or Ixion (Ephorus FGrH 70 F 23; Diod. Sic. 4,63,1; 4,69,3; Ov. Met. 8,403f., 567, 613; 12,210, 338; Apollod. 1,68) and Dia [3], brother of Clymene [6], husband of Hippodamia [2], father of Polypoetes [1] (Hom. Il. 2,740-742; 1…

Milye

(45 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μιλύη; Milýē). Daughter of Zeus, sister and wife of Solymus, eponym of the Lycian people of the Solymi, who were called Milyae after M. (Hdt. 1,173; 3,90; 7,77); later wife of Cragus, after whom Mount Cragus was named. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Oenopion

(93 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Οἰνοπίων; Oinopíōn). Son of Dionysus and Ariadne (also son of Rhadamanthys: Diod. Sic. 5,79; Paus. 7,4,8f.), husband of the nymph Helice, and with her the father of Merope [2] (also husband of Merope: Pind. fr. 72 M.). When  Orion [1] rapes O.'s daughter Merope, O. blinds him; when Orion is healed and returns for revenge, he cannot find O., who is hiding underground (Eratosth. Katasterismoi 32; Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,34; Hes. fr. 148a M.-W.). For other variants cf. Apollod. 1,25f.; Parthenius 20; Serv. Aen. 1,535; 10,763. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Manto

(155 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μαντώ; Mantṓ). Daughter of Teiresias, from Thebes, like her father gifted as a seer, priestess of Apollo Ismenios (Eur. Phoen. 834ff.). When the Epigoni [2] conquer Thebes, M. is consecrated to Apollo at Delphi (Apollod. 3,85; Paus. 9,33,2; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,308). Diod. Sic. 4,66,5f. calls her Daphne [2], and describes her as an excellent poet, from whom even Homer took some verses. Later, M. participates in the founding of the colony of Colophon [1] in Asia Minor (with the or…

Mentes

(71 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μέντης; Méntēs). [German version] [1] Ciconian leader in the Trojan War Mythical commander of the Cicones in the Trojan War. Apollo assumes his guise to spur Hector on to battle (Hom. Il. 17,13). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Prince of the Taphians in the Trojan War Mythical Prince of the Taphiae. Athena assumes his guise to appear to Telemachus (Hom. Od. 1,105; 1,180; Mentor [2]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Peisidice

(103 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πεισιδίκη; Peisidíkē). [German version] [1] Name of various mythical figures Name of various mythical figures: daughter of Aeolus [1], wife of Myrmidon (Apollod. 1,51f.), daughter of Nestor [1] ( ibid. 1,94), daughter of Pelias ( ibid. 1,95; Hyg. Fab. 24). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of King Lepethymnus of Methymna Daughter of King Lepethymnus of Methymna; love prompted her to betray her home city to its besieger, Achilles [1], but she was stoned to death for this on his orders (Parthenius 21). The same story is also told o…

Philyra

(206 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Φιλύρα/Philýra, literally 'lime-tree'). [German version] [1] Oceanid Oceanid, already in Hesiod (Theog. 1002) the mother of the centaur Chiron, in whose cave she lived according to Pindar (N. 3,43). The Hesiodic, Aeolic spelling Phillyrídēs for Chiron points to an archaic stratum of the myth (West on Hes. Theog. 1002). She was loved by Kronos who, being surprised by Rhea while making love to her, turned himself and P. into horses. Their child was the centaur Chiron, whose monstrous shape so horrified the mother that she prayed…

Phorcys

(228 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Φόρκυς/ Phórkys, Latin Phorcus, Phorcys, Phorcyn). [German version] [1] Sea god Sea god, son of Pontus and Gaia, brother of Nereus (Hes. Theog. 237; in Orph. Fr. 16 son of Oceanus and Tethys, in Orph. Fr. 114 Titan); with his sister Ceto he fathered monsters (Phorcydes) such as the Graeae, Gorgons (Gorgo [1]), Echidna and the snake Ladon [1] (Hes. Theog. 270-303; 333-336); according to others he was also the father of the Sirens (Soph. fr. 861 TrGF), the Hesperides (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 4,1399d), Scylla (Apoll. Rhod. 4,828f. with schol.) and Thoosa (Hom. Od. 1,71f.). In the Odyssey, where a…

Polymele

(137 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
(Πολυμήλη/ Polymḗlē, Πολυμήλα/ Polymḗla). [German version] [1] Mother of Jason Daughter of Autolycus [1], wife of Aeson [1], mother of Jason (Iason [1]) (Hes. fr. 38 M.-W.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Lover of Hermes Daughter of king Phylas [1] of Ephyra, lover of Hermes, mother by him of Eudorus [1], thereafter wife of Echecles, the son of Actor (Hom. Il. 16,179-190). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) [German version] [3] Wife of Peleus before Thetis Daughter of Actor, wife of Peleus before Thetis (schol. Lycoph. 175), according to Eust. ad Hom Il. 2,684 the mothe…

Limenius

(167 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Choral lyric poet from Athens, 2nd cent. BC (Λιμήνιος; Limḗnios) from Athens. Choral lyric poet, composer of a paean to Apollo (127 BC), which is preserved in an inscription on the treasury of the Athenians at Delphi. Besides the text itself, the notes of the tune for the kithara accompaniment are also provided: Paeonic-Cretan rhythm, the word accent taken up by the melody, highest variability in the use of keys. Metre; Athenaeus [7] Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography E. Pöhlmann, Denkmäler altgriech. Musik, 1970, 68-76 M. L. West, Ancient Greek Music, 1992, 293-301 L. …

Melanthus

(205 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Μέλανθος/ Mélanthos). [German version] [1] From Messenia, descendant of Neleus of Pylos M. of Messenia, descendant of Neleus of Pylus (Hdt. 1,147; 5,65), son of Andropompus and Henoche (Paus. 1,3,3; 19,5; 2,187ff.; 7,1,9), father of Codrus (ibid. 8,18,7). Expelled from Messenia, he went to Attica (Eleusis), where he fought a duel on behalf of the king Thymoetes with Xanthus, the king of Boeotia. With the aid of Dionysus Melanaigis and by his own cunning he gained the victory. Dionysus received a sanctuary in reward, and M. became king of Athens. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] P…

Neaera

(250 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Νέαιρα; Néaira). [German version] [1] Helios' mistress Helios' mistress, mother of the cowherds tending their father's herd on Thrinacie (Hom. Od. 12,133). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Strymon's mistress Strymon's mistress and mother of Euadne, who was spouse of Argos [I 1] (Apollod. 2,3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Daughter of Pereus Daughter of Pereus, spouse of Aleus [1], mother of Auge [2] (Apollod. 3,102). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [4] Spouse of Aetas Spouse of Aetas (alsoIdyia; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 3,240). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) …
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