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Loofs, Friedrich

(486 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
Dt. Kirchenhistoriker. Geb. am 19. 6. 1858 in Hildesheim, gest. am 13. 1. 1928 in Halle a. d. S. Schulbesuch in Hildesheim; Studium der evang. Theologie in Leipzig, Tübingen und Göttingen 1877–1880; Prom. zum Dr. phil. 1881 und zum Lic. theol. in Leipzig 1882; Habil. 1882, anschließend Lehrtätigkeit ebda. (1886 ao.Prof. ). 1887 ao.Prof. in Halle; 1888–1926 o.Prof., 1907/08 Rektor ebda. Werk und Wirkung L. war in seinem wiss. Ethos stark von Adolf von Harnack (mit dem ihn lebenslange Freundschaft verband) und Albrecht Ritschl beeinflusst, ist aber theo…

Lietzmann, Hans

(518 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
Dt. Theologe und Kirchenhistoriker. Geb. am 2. 3. 1875 in Düsseldorf, gest. am 25. 6. 1942 in Locarno. Abitur in Wittenberg; Studium in Jena und Bonn; theologische Prom. in Bonn 1896; Staatsexamen 1898; Habil. ebda. 1900. 1905 ao.Prof. für Kirchengesch.; 1908 o.Prof. in Jena.; 1924 o.Prof. in Berlin. Werk und Wirkung L. studierte evang. Theologie und Klass. Philologie. Prägende Lehrer waren der Philologe und Religionshistoriker Hermann Usener und der Neutestamentler Eduard Grafe in Bonn, wo L. mit einer Arbeit über den Titel des Menschensohn…

Lietzmann, Hans

(592 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
German theologian and ecclesiastical historian. Born Düsseldorf 2. 3. 1875, died Locarno 25. 6. 1942. Abitur at Wittenberg; studies at Jena and Bonn; doctorate in theology at Bonn 1896. Staatsexamen 1898; habil. Bonn 1900. 1905 prof. ext. in church history, 1908 prof. ord. at Jena; 1924 prof. ord. at Berlin. Work and influence L. studied Protestant theology and classical philology. His main teachers were the philologist and religious historian Hermann Usener and the New Testament scholar Eduard Grafe at Bonn, where L. took his doctorate with a dis…

Loofs, Friedrich

(517 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
German ecclesiastical historian. Born Hildesheim 19. 6. 1858, died Halle an der Saale 13. 1. 1928. School at Hildesheim; studied Protestant theology at Leipzig, Tübingen and Göttingen 1877–1880; doctorate (Dr. phil.) 1881 and licentiate in theol. at Leipzig 1882; habil. 1882, then taught there (1886 prof. ext.). 1887 prof. ext. at Halle; 1888–1926 prof. ord., 1907/08 rector there. Work and influence L. was strongly influenced by Adolf von Harnack (a lifelong friend) and Albrecht Ritschl in his scholarly ethos, but in terms of theology he can only with res…


(311 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
[German Version] Greek apologist (2nd half of 2nd cent.), is mentioned briefly only by Methodius of Olympus ( De resurrectione mortuorum I, 37, 1–3, with a fragment from Athenagoras's Supplicatio) and Philip of Side (in a confused passage copied by Theodorus Lector, GCS 54, 1971, 160). He describes himself as a Christian philosopher from Athens ( Supplicatio, titulus, if authentic; he was clearly not the “head” of the Academy, as Philip claims). Whether this description indicates a philosophical education before his conversion is as uncertain as Philip's …

Justin Martyr (Saint)

(771 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
[German Version] (Iustinus Martyr; born in Flavia Neapolis [Nablus], Samaria, died 165 in Rome) was a Greek apologist and Christian philosopher. He was born into a pagan family (who called themselves “Samaritans”), received a grammatical and rhetorical education, and was familiar with a variety of philosophical schools. He understood his eventual conversion to Christianity as a turn to the true philosophy. Justin may have taught for a time in Ephesus and finally established a Christian school in R…


(5,925 words)

Author(s): Kraus, Georg | Kinzig, Wolfram | Schlemmer, Karl | Plank, Peter | Schwier, Helmut | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Church History – III. Liturgy – IV. Customs and Traditions – V. Homiletics and Education – VI. Art History I. Terminology Easter (cf. Ger. Ostern) is the English word for the feast of Jesus Christ's resurrection (II). The name in other Germanic and Romance languages derives instead from Gk πάσχα/ páscha (Aram. פַּסְחָא/ pascha' or פִּסְחָא/ pischa' for Heb. פֶּסַח/ pesah. [from פסח/ psh., “limp/go past”, etymology not entirely clear]; Lat. as pascha or passa), for example, Påske (Danish and Norwegian), Pasen (Dutch), Påsk (Swedish), Pasqua (…

Paschal/Easter Calendrical Controversies

(573 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
[German Version] The first disputes regarding the date of Easter or the duration of the preceding fast (Fasting: III, 1; the sources are not clear which) go back to the mid-2nd century, when there were differences between Polycarp of Smyrna and Anicetus, the bishop of Rome, which were resolved amicably (Eus. Hist. eccl. IV 14.1, 5; V 24.16f.). During the episcopate of Victor I of Rome, the so-called Paschal Controversy arose between the church in Rome and the churches in Asia Minor (Eus. Hist. eccl. V 23–25). In Asia Minor, the church followed the Jewish calculation of the date…

Theophilus of Alexandria (Saint)

(379 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
[German Version] (c. 345, Memphis – Oct 15, 412, Alexandria), patriarch of Alexandria. He was said to have been a catechumen and student of Athanasius, who baptized him. He entered the clergy prior to 370 and worked as an episcopal secretary; he may also have been the teacher of Tyrannius Rufinus. Between 384 and 387 he was enthroned as bishop of Alexandria. He systematically destroyed the pagan temples (including the Serapeum) and replaced them with churches (before 392). After 391 he appears to …

Apollinarius of Hierapolis, Claudius,

(669 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
[German Version] bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia (c. 175). Claudius Apollinarius or Apollinaris (Latin form; the preferred Greek form is “Apolinarios”; cf. Zahn) was a bishop in Phrygia during the reign of the emperor Marcus Aurelius (161–180, sole reign 169–176; cf. Eusebius Hist. eccl. IV 21 with IV 19; IV 26.1; idem, Chron. ad ann. Abr. 2187; idem, Chron. paschale ad Olymp. ann. 237, 1 = ann. Christ. 167; Photius Bibl., cod. 14). According to Theodoret, he was versed in scripture and also familiar with pagan learning ( Haer. fab. III, 2). Photius praises his literary style ( loc. cit.). No…


(210 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
[German Version] The term νεόϕυτος/ neóphytos (“newly planted”) appears in the New Testament only in 1 Tim 3:6 (possibly influenced by Isa 5:7 LXX; cf. also 1 Cor 3:5–9), where it refers to a recent adult convert, who is excluded from the office of bishop (cf. also the Syriac Didascalia 4). Canon 2 of the Council of Nicea in 325 forbids ordination to the priesthood or episcopate immediately after baptism; similar decrees appear in canon 3 of the Council of Laodicea (between 343 and 381), Apostolic Canons 80, and canon 19 of the Fourth Council of Toledo (633). C…


(349 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
[German Version] (or Quartadecimans). The term derives from Latin quarto- or quartadecimani, used by Tacitus in a military context; in the present context, however, it translates Greek τεσσαρεσκαιδεκατῖται/ tessareskaidekatítai (first used by Epiphanius of Salamis c. 375). It is an umbrella term for groups of Christians that celebrated Passover (Feasts and festivals: II; III) or Easter on Nisan 14, according the Jewish calculation of Passover. They are first mentioned by Apollinarius of Hierapolis (frgm. De Pascha) and Polycrates of Ephesus (cit. in Eus. Hist. eccl. V 24.2–8), …


(341 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
[English Version] Theophilus, Patriarch von Alexandrien (ca.345 Memphis – 15.10.412). In Alexandrien angeblich Katechumene und Schüler des Athanasius und von diesem getauft; vor 370 Aufnahme in den Klerus und Tätigkeit als bfl. Sekretär; seinerseits möglicherweise Lehrer Rufinus' von Aquileia. Zw. 384 und 387 als Bf. von Alexandrien inthronisiert. Er ließ syst. die paganen Tempel (u.a. das Serapeion) zerstören und durch Kirchen ersetzen (vor 392). Nach 391 trug er offenbar maßgeblich zum Ende des Sch…


(495 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
[English Version] . Die ersten Auseinandersetzungen um den Ostertermin bzw. die Dauer des damit verbundenen Osterfastens (Fasten/Fastentage: III.,1.; die Quellen sind nicht eindeutig) gehen zurück in die Mitte des 2.Jh., als es darüber zw. Polykarp von Smyrna und dem röm. Bischof Anicetus zu Differenzen kam, die gütlich beigelegt wurden (Eus.h.e. IV 14,1.5; V 24,16f.). Während des Episkopats Victors I. von Rom entstand sodann zw. der röm. und den kleinasiatischen Kirchen der sog. Osterfeststreit (…


(4,994 words)

Author(s): Kraus, Georg | Kinzig, Wolfram | Schlemmer, Karl | Plank, Peter | Schwier, Helmut | Et al.
[English Version] I. Zum BegriffO. ist der dt. Name für das Fest der Auferstehung (: II.) Jesu Christi (ähnlich engl. »easter«). Dagegen ist in den übrigen germ. sowie in den romanischen Sprachen die Bez. vom griech. Begriff πα´σχα/pa´scha (aram. פַּסְחָא/pascha' oder פִּסְחָא/pischa' für hebr. פֶּסַח/pæsaḥ [von פסח/psḥ, »vorbeihinken, vorbeigehen an«, Etym. nicht restlos geklärt]; latinisierte Schreibvariante: passa) abgeleitet, z.B. Paaske (dänisch), Pasen (niederländisch), Paskit (norwegisch), Pasqua (ital.), Pascua (span.), Pa^ques (fr…


(172 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
[English Version] . Der Begriff n̆εο´ϕυτος/neo´phytos (»neugepflanzt«) begegnet im NT nur in 1Tim 3,6 (Einfluß von Jes 5,7 LXX?; vgl. auch 1Kor 3,5–9) und bez. dort den erwachsenen »Neubekehrten«, der vom Bischofsamt ausgeschlossen wird (vgl. auch syr. Didaskalia 4). In c.2 des Konzils von Nicaea 325 wird die Priester- und Bischofsweihe in unmittelbarem Anschluß an die Taufe untersagt (ähnlich Laodicaea 343/381, c.3; Apostolische Canones 80; Toledo IV [633], c.19). Gemäß c.10 (13) der (westlichen) Sy…


(318 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
[English Version] (Quartadezimaner). Der Begriff ist abgeleitet von lat. quarto- bzw. quartadecimani, schon bei Tacitus in militärischem Kontext belegt, im vorliegenden Zusammenhang aber Übers. von griech. τεσσαρεσκαιδεκατι˜ται/tessareskaidekati´tai (zuerst bei Epiphanius von Salamis um 375). Er dient als Sammelbez. für Gruppen von Christen, die Passa (Feste/Feiern: II., III.) bzw. Ostern gemäß der jüd. Pesachberechnung am 14. Nisan feierten. Ihre älteste Bezeugung findet sich bei Apollinaris von Hierapolis (Frgm. De Pas…