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Private Religion

(1,366 words)

Author(s): Knoblauch, Hubert
‘Private’ 1. The word ‘private’ derives from the Latin privatus, and means ‘belonging to,’ or ‘concerning a particular person or group; not common or general.’ In the course of the eighteenth century—through connections with ‘private property,’ and ‘private person’—the word developed into a counter-concept, first, to ‘state’ (adj.), and then, to ‘public,’ or ‘public civil,’ so that it gained the sense of ‘divided from [other] citizens,’ a state-free sphere. Private Religion 2. The Christian churches, in their self-concept, fulfill a ‘public charge.’ Indeed, they ma…


(3,420 words)

Author(s): Brunkhorst, Hauke | Knoblauch, Hubert | Pöttner, Martin | Geissner, Hellmut K. | Engemann, Wilfried
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Religious Studies – III. Fundamental Theology – IV. Ethics – V. Practical Theology I. Philosophy In the 20th century, philosophical issues were primarily treated as issues of language and communication. While Rorty spoke of a “linguistic turn,” and thereby focused on methodological innovations in theoretical philosophy, Apel and Habermas postulated an objective shift of paradigm from consciousness to communication that is meant to have revolutioni…


(5,316 words)

Author(s): Schäfers, Bernhard | Leppin, Volker | Meyer-Blanck, Michael | de Boutemard, Bernhard Suin | Knoblauch, Hubert
[German Version] I. Definition Sociology is an empirical social science; its field of study encompasses the relatively enduring forms and structures of social action (Action, Science of ) and the resultant social units, from entities like the family and kinship group and social groups to large-scale organizations and states. The word itself is an artificial combination of Latin socius (“companion, fellow”) and Greek logos (“word, truth,” in an extended sense “knowledge”). It appears for the first time in vol. IV of the Cours de philosophie positive of A. Comte (1838). As a scie…

Parsons, Talcott

(188 words)

Author(s): Knoblauch, Hubert
[German Version] (Dec 13, 1902, Colorado Springs, CO – May 8, 1979, Munich). After graduating from Amherst College, Parsons studied at the London School of Economics and the University of Heidelberg; he taught at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was one of the most important and influential sociologists of the 20th century. Initially a champion of a voluntaristic theory of action, he pioneered structural functionalism and later sociological systems theory (III). His structural fu…

Durkheim, Émile

(356 words)

Author(s): Knoblauch, Hubert
[German Version] (Apr 15, 1858, Épinal – Nov 15, 1917 Paris). French sociologist. He studied at the École Normale Supérieure, and taught at the University of Bordeaux from 1887 to 1902, later changing to Paris, where he exerted a lasting influence not only on French sociology, but also on public discussion. One of the founders of sociology, Durkheim dealt with a broad …

Sociology of Religion

(3,710 words)

Author(s): Knoblauch, Hubert | Mürmel, Heinz | Otto, Eckart | Ebertz, Michael N. | Stuckrad, Kocku v. | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology The sociology of religion studies religion’s social aspects and manifestations, clearly including religious institutions, organizations, and social groups. It also studies more situational forms, less clearly defined, such as gatherings, ceremonies, and collective rituals (e.g. processions [Rite and ritual]). In an extended sense, characteristic of the German-language tradition since M. Weber, religious sociology deals with all social or socialized behavior focused on…


(3,376 words)

Author(s): Knoblauch, Hubert | Mürmel, Heinz | Otto, Eckart | Ebertz, Michael N. | Stuckrad, Kocku v. | Et al.
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff: Religionssoziologie und Religionswissenschaft R. oder Soziologie der Rel. beschäftigt sich mit den sozialen Aspekten und Ausformungen der Rel. Dazu gehören offensichtlich die rel. Institutionen, Organisationen sowie soziale Gruppen. Auch weniger feste, situative soziale Formationen, wie Versammlungen, Zeremonien und kollektive Rituale (z.B. Prozessionen [ Ritus/Ritual]), zählen zum Forschungsbereich der R. In einem weiteren Sinn, der v.a. die deutschsprachige Tradition…


(4,760 words)

Author(s): Schäfers, Bernhard | Leppin, Volker | Meyer-Blanck, Michael | Suin de Boutemard, Bernhard | Knoblauch, Hubert
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff Die S. ist eine empirische Sozialwiss., deren Gegenstandsbereich die relativ dauerhaften Formen und Strukturen des sozialen Handelns (Handlungswissenschaft) und die daraus resultierenden sozialen Gebilde sind, von den gemeinschaftlichen der Familie/ Verwandtschaft und sozialen Gruppen bis zu den gesellschaftlichen der Organisationen und Staaten. Der Begriff S. ist ein Kunstwort, das sich aus lat. socius (»Gefährte, Mitmensch«) und griech. logos (»Wort, Wahrheit«, im …


(173 words)

Author(s): Knoblauch, Hubert
[English Version] Parsons, Talcott (13.12.1902 Colorado Springs, CO – 8.5.1979 München); studierte am Armherst College, danach an der London School of Economics und an der Universität Heidelberg; lehrte an der Harvard Universität in Cambridge, MA. P. zählt zu den wichtigsten und einflußreichsten Soziologen des 20.Jh., der, anfangs Verfechter einer »voluntaristischen Handlungstheorie«, die strukturell-funktionale Theorie, später die soziologische Systemtheorie (: III) begründete. Sein Strukturfunkti…