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Noviomagus

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] [1] City of the Bituriges Vivisci in Aquitania The city of the Bituriges Vivisci (Βίτουργες Οὐβίσκοι/ Bítourges Oubískoi) in Aquitania mentioned in Ptol. 2,7,7 (Νουιόμαγος/ Nouiómagos) is generally identified with a Roman vicus near Brion (Saint-Germain-d'Esteuil) in the Médoc between Lesparre and Pauillac ( département of Gironde). This town with an ancient sanctuary of the Medulli had been inhabited from the 3rd cent. BC; urban development is recognisable from the time of Claudius (41-54 AD). It was in this period that the fanum (sanctuary) and the theatre we…

Alesia

(145 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Caesar | Gallia/Gaul | Celts | Oppidum   Oppidum of the  Mandubii in  Gallia Celtica, today Alise-Sainte-Reine (Côte-d'Or). A. took up a plateau of c. 80 hectares with remarkable natural protection on Mont Auxois (Mons Alisiensis). In 52 BC  Vercingetorix was besieged here by Caesar and despite the intervention of relief troops had to capitulate (Caes. B Gall. 7,68-90). A. continued to exist as a Gallo-Roman centre dur…

Minoa

(355 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
(Μινώα/ Minṓa). [German version] [1] Region on the west coast of the Argolic Gulf According to Ptol. 3,14,32 a harbour, according to Str. 8,6,1 a phroûrion (‘fortification’), according to Paus. 3,23,11 foothills on the west coast of the Argolic Gulf, the modern island of Monemvasia with medieval and modern fortifications. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M.D. and R. Higgins, A Geological Companion to Greece and the Aegean, 1996, 55f.  A.J.B. Wace, F.W. Hasluck, South-Eastern Laconia, in: ABSA 14, 1907-1908, 176ff.  H. Waterhouse, R.Hope Simpson, Pre-Historic Laconia 2, in:…

Neris

(35 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Νηρίς/ Nērís). Settlement in the territory of Cynuria [1] in the eastern Peloponnese, possibly at modern Kato Doliana [1. 122-124; 2. 75-79] (Paus. 2,38,6; Stat. Theb. 4,46). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Pritchett 3 2 Pritchett 4.

Geronthrae

(136 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea (Γερόνθραι; Gerónthrai). Spartan perioikoi town on the western edge of the Parnon above the Eurotas valley, later part of the league of the  Eleutherolakones, near modern Geraki, still inhabited in the Imperial period and thus even named in Hierocles (Synekdemos 647,9). Paus. 3,22,6f. mentions a temple of Ares with a grove, an agora with a fountain house and a temple of Apollo on the acropolis. Further evidence: Steph. Byz. s.v. Γεράνθραι; Geránthrai; IG V 1, 1110-1141. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliogr…

Cabillon(n)um

(71 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Town by the Arar in Gallia Lugdunensis, today Chalon-sur-Saône. As a river port of the Haedui, C. was of economic importance until the conquest by the Romans. Literary sources: Caes. B Gall. 7,42; 7,90; Str. 4,3,2; Ptol. 2,8,12. In later times, station of the classis Ararica. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography L. Bonnamour, s.v. Cabillon(n)um, PE, 179f. Grenier 2, 1934, 562-564.

Helvii

(140 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] ( Elvii, Elvi or Ilvi, Caes. B Civ. 1,35; Ἑλουοί, Str. 4,2,1). Celtic tribe of people whose area (modern Dép. Ardèche) on the right bank of the Rhône in the north bordered on the Segusiavi, in the west on the Vellavii and Gabali and in the south on the Volcae Arecomici. The Cevennes separated them from the Arverni (Caes. B Gall. 7,8). In 52 BC in the war against Vercingetorix they were on the side of Caesar. In the new division of the province under Augustus they were attached to Aqui…

Caryae

(213 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Καρύαι; Karýai). [German version] [1] Arcadian settlement Arcadian settlement (χωρίον) on the southern shore of the lake of Pheneus (Paus. 8,13,6; 14,1). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) [German version] [2] Settlement in NW-Parnon This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta Settlement in the north-western Parnon range, on Sparta's north-eastern border with Arcadia, either near the modern Analipsis on the banks of the Saranda-Potamos in the north-east of the plain of Kambos, or near Arachova north of the village that once again bears th…

Nonacris

(251 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Νώνακρις; Nōnakris). [German version] [1] Place in Arcadia Place in Arcadia (Paus. 8,18,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ν.; Suda s.v. Ν.; Hesych. s.v. Ν.; IG V 2, p. 83) in the valley of the upper Crathis [1] on the north-eastern slope of Aroania Ore (modern Helmos), famous because of the Styx waterfall, which was located in the N. area; N. is mentioned in classical literature only in this connection. If in the 5th cent. BC it was still an independent town (Hdt. 6,74), in the 4th cent. BC N. Belonged to Pheneus. I…

Lingones

(115 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic people on the border between Gallia Lugdunensis and Gallia Belgica, between the Senones and the Sequani (Str. 4,1,11; 3,4; 6,11: Λίγγονες/ Língones; Ptol. 2,9,9: Λόγγονες/ Lóngones). The L. did not participate in the battles of the Gauls against Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 1,26,5; 40,11; 7,9,4; 63,7; Plut. Caesar 26,6; Cass. Dio 40,38; 66,3). Already foederati at the time (Plin. HN 4,31), they gained Roman citizenship at the end of the 1st cent. AD (Tac. Hist. 1,78,1). After AD 250, they belonged to the provincia Lugdunensis. Their capital was Andematu(n)num (mod…

Nestane

(99 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Νεστάνη/ Nestánē). Fortified village (κώμη/ kṓmē) in the Mantinea region in Arcadia (Theop. FGrH 115 F 175; Ephor. FGrH 70 F 234) on the eastern edge of the plateau on the road to Argos [II 1] by way of the Prinos pass. At the time of Pausanias (8,7,4; 8,1) N. was in ruins; near what is now Nestane (formerly Tsipiana). Remains of the castle wall have been preserved. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography S. and H. Hodkinson, Mantineia and the Mantinike, in: ABSA 76, 1981, 267-269  M. Jost, Villages de l'Arcadie antique, in: Ktema 11, 1986 (1990), 156f.  Jost, 140.

Pisatis, Pisa

(362 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πισάτις/ Pisátis, Πίσα/ Písa). Region and city or two terms for one region in westernPeloponnesus. The question of the historicity of the city P. is controversial today [1] just as in antiquity (Str. 8,3,31) and often answered in the negative (Str. l.c.). The earliest mention gives the name Πίσα/ Písā (, cf. Pind. Ol. 2,3; 3,9; Pind. Nem. 10,32), in Attic literature Πῖσα/ Pîsa (, Eur. IT 1; Eur. Hel. 386; Hdt. 2,7, with long /i/); the classical ethnikon is always Πισάτης/ Pisátēs (Pind. Ol. 4,11; Eur. IT 824), and since the Hellenistic Period Πισαῖος/ Pisaîos (cf. Paus…

Esuvii

(49 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Esubii). Tribe in Gallia Celtica, later Lugdunensis, between the lower Seine and the Loire. Caesar (Gall. 2,34; 3,7; 5,24; 5,53) mentions it as one of the tribes of Aremorica (Bretagne) between the Coriosolites and the Aulerci in the area of Sées (Orne). Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Insubres

(216 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Radke, Gerhard (Berlin)
[German version] Powerful Celtic people (Pol. 2,17,4; Str. 5,1,6; according to Liv. 5,34,9 the district of the Haedui), of a simple lifestyle (Pol. loc. cit.), in Upper Italy to the east of the Salassi (Ptol. 3,1,34) and Libici (Ptol. 3,1,36) and west of the  Cenomanni [3] (Ptol. 3,1,33; Pol. 2,17,4; Str. 5,1,9) and the river Clusius (Κλούσιος, Pol. 2,32,4) with their main settlement at Mediolan(i)um (Liv. 5,34,9; Plin. HN 3,124; Str. 5,1,6). Other towns of the Insubres (Ptol. 3,1,33): Comum, Tici…

Peloponnesus

(1,127 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(ἡ Πελοπόννησος/ hē Pelopónnēsos, Doric Πελοπόννασος/ Pelopónnasos). [German version] I. Geography Peninsula in southern Greece (21,439 km²), connected to the mainland (Attica, Boeotia) by the Isthmus of Corinth. It is predominantly mountainous (cf. Cyllene [1], Erymanthus [1], Lycaeum, western Messenian massif with Ithome [1], Taygetus, Parnon) and highly fragmented (cf. the numerous small rivers, particularly in Achaea, e.g. Alpheus [1], Pamisus, Eurotas, Inachus [2]; also the many small coastal plains a…

Sicyon

(827 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Lafond
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars (Σικυών; Sikyṓn). [German version] I. Site Port on the Gulf of Corinth, 26 km to the west of Corinth. Its territory was confined to the east by the river Nemea [2] (border with Corinth), to the west by the river Sythas (border with Pellene) (Paus. 7,27,12). S. was famous as early as Antiquity for the fertility of the valley and for the highlands of Neogene marl. In the Archaic and Classic…

Lessa

(61 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λῆσσα; Lêssa). Village on the Argolian Acte on the border to Epidaurus, presumably near modern Ligurio, with Athena sanctuary. Literary evidence: Paus. 2,25,10; 26,1. Inscriptions: IG IV, 906-912; 1611. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography A. Frickenhaus, W. Müller, Aus der Argolis, in: MDAI(A) 36, 1911, 30 R. L. Scranton, The Pottery from the Pyramids, in: Hesperia 7, 1938, 537.

Augustodunum

(151 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce Augustan foundation at the junction of the basins of the Loire, the Saône and the Rhône, modern Autun. Built as a replacement for  Bibracte as the capital of the Haedui, A. became a lively centre of Romanization. Marked by insurgencies in the 1st cent. AD (Tac. Ann. 3,43), A. was distinguished by its great prosperity up to the end of the 3rd cent (cf. archaeological finds). Despite its decline after the capitulation…

Epitalium

(50 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπιτάλιον; Epitálion). Town in Triphylia on the left bank of the  Alpheius [1]. References: Xen. Hell. 3,2,29; Pol. 4,80; Str. 8,3,12; 8,3,24. Archaeology: significant remains from Roman times. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Chroniques des fouilles, in: BCH 94, 1970, 996 E. Meyer, Neue peloponnesische Wanderungen, 1957, 50, 60.

Alea

(231 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] [1] see Dice (game) see  Dice (game) Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Epiclesis of Athena in Arcadia (Ἀλέα; Aléa). Epiclesis of Athena in Arcadia, where Pausanias gives evidence of it for Alea (8,23,1), Mantinea (8,9,6), and above all Tegea (8,45,4-47,3), also a xóanon in Amyclae (3,19,7). The Tegeate sanctuary enjoyed the highest respect and held the right to grant asylum (Paus. 3,5,6); a boy administered the service. Scopas constructed the classical temple, which was the largest and most beautiful one on th…
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