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(644 words)

Author(s): Luz, Ulrich (Göttingen)
(Gr. Ματθαῖος/ Matthaîos or Μαθθαῖος/ Maththaîos), the Evangelist. According to church tradition - probably based on Mt 9,9 (tax collector M. instead of Levi in Mk 2,13) - M. was the author of the anonymously passed down first gospel (= Mt), by and large the most influential book in the history of European thought. The author's name M. follows the principle that Christian canonical writings ( Canon V.) must have an apostle as author. [German version] A. Composition and contents Mt begins with a programmatic introduction (1,1-4,22) as well as the teachings and healings of Je…


(543 words)

Author(s): Luz, Ulrich (Göttingen)
(lat. Matthaeus), der Evangelist. M. war - wohl aufgrund von Mt 9,9 (Zöllner M. statt Levi in Mk 2,13) - nach kirchl. Überl. der Verf. des anonym überl. ersten Evangeliums (= Mt), das in der europ. Geistesgesch. wirkungsvoll wie kaum ein anderes Buch gewesen ist. Der Verfassername M. entspricht dem Prinzip, daß christl. kanonische Schriften (Kanon V.) einen Apostel als Verf. haben müssen. [English version] A. Aufbau und Inhalt Das Mt beginnt mit einer programmatischen Einleitung (1,1-4,22) sowie dem Lehren und Heilen Jesu, des Davidssohns und Messias Israels, in …

Righteousness, Justice

(6,688 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter | Reumann, John | Luz, Ulrich | Strohm, Theodor
1. OT 1.1. Term The Heb. root ṣdq is as comprehensive in meaning as the Eng. “right(eous),” Ger. (ge)recht, Gk. nomos, or Lat. ius (Law). It embraces, besides the narrower legal sense of justice, judgment, and standard for what is right (Ger. Gericht, Rechts-norm), the wider ethicosocial sphere of wholesome and salutary relationships. The masc. ṣedeq denotes a state of beneficently ordered relationships between people or between people and God; the fem. ṣĕdāqâ refers to conduct that corresponds to this state or promotes it; the verb ṣdq describes the related action…


(13,361 words)

Author(s): Ritschl, Dietrich | Luz, Ulrich | Mühlenberg, Ekkehard | Kallis, Anastasios | Döring, Heinrich
Overview Overview Christology is systematic reflection on the basis and significance of the apostolic witness to Jesus Christ, along with its expression and application throughout the history of the church. It has long been a classic part of theological teaching. It seeks to fashion explicit statements that can be tested and used in close connection with other central areas of Christian doctrine (e.g., Church; Anthropology; Justification; Hope; Ethics; Pastoral Theology). It begins, however, with implicit as well as explicit Christological statements. The…

Sermon on the Mount

(3,508 words)

Author(s): Luz, Ulrich | Berner, Ursula | Adam, Gottfried
[German Version] I. New Testament 1. The Matthean text. The first of the five discourses of Jesus in Matthew, Matt 5–7, is called the Sermon on the Mount. It contains the first extended presentation of Jesus’ message in Matthew, the “gospel of the kingdom” (4:23) or “everything that I have commanded you” (28:20) – in short, the content of the disciples’ missionary preaching for all nations. Therefore Jesus’ words are addressed not just to the disciples but also to the crowds (7:28; cf. 5:1aα). The structure is based on concentric inclusio, with numerous triads. The Paternoster (6:9–1…

Matthew, Gospel of

(2,245 words)

Author(s): Luz, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Structure. – II. Genre – III. Sources – IV. Origin and Transmission – V. Theological Basics I. Structure 1. Overview Today most scholars read Matthew as a narrative, not as a new Torah in five books or as a concentric composition organized around a particular midpoint. Following Kingsbury, most exegetes consider 16:21 (= Mark 8:31) the beginning of a new main division, so that the structure of Matthew is modeled on that of Mark. The five great discourses are not the pri-¶ mary elements defining the Gospel's structure but are interpolated into the narrati…

Effective History/Reception History

(5,400 words)

Author(s): Steinmann, Michael | Schüle, Andreas | Rösel, Martin | Luz, Ulrich | Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Fundamental Theology – III. Applications I. Philosophy The concept of effective history ( Wirkungsgeschichte) takes on philosophical significance in the hermeneutics of H.G. Gadamer, where it represents the attempt to clarify the fundamental requirement for understanding texts and make this understanding transparent in its own historically conditioned context. …


(4,777 words)

Author(s): Steinmann, Michael | Schüle, Andreas | Rösel, Martin | Luz, Ulrich | Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] I. Philosophisch Der Begriff einer Wirkungsgesch. (Wg.) erlangt in der Hermeneutik (: IV.) Hans-Georg Gadamers eine philos. Bedeutung. Er steht dort für den Versuch, die grundsätzliche Bedingung des Verstehens überlieferter Texte zu klären und das Verstehen in der ihm eigenen Geschichtsgebundenheit durchsichtig zu machen. Demnach geht es bei der Wg. nicht mehr um die philol. oder hist. Aufgabe, die Fortwirkung eines Textes zu untersuchen. Vielmehr soll sich das Verstehen selbst al…