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Hasta

(1,030 words)

Author(s): Campbell, J. Brian (Belfast) | Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) | Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover) | Salomone Gaggero, Eleonora (Genoa) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Hasta, hastati In the Roman army of the middle Republic, the hasta served primarily as a thrust lance for close combat although it could also be thrown; it had a wooden shaft and an iron point. The hasta was adapted to the fighting style of the  phalanx, but it remained in use when, in the 4th cent. BC, the Romans adopted a more flexible set-up in maniples (  manipulus ). According to Livy (Liv. 8,8,5-13), whose account, however, is not without its problems, in 340 BC the Roman army consisted of three battle rows, the hastati, the principes and the triarii. The triarii were a…

Vocatio in ius

(355 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] In Roman law, the 'call' (in the sense of summons) to stand trial. The VII addressed the problem, fundamental in every jurisdiction (but most particularly at early stages of development), of how to bring an accused person before the court: as long as no direct compulsion is available or permitted, sanctions with at least indirect effect must accompany the summons. Both variants are found in the development of Roman law: for the oldest type of trial, the legis actio (action under the (XII-Table) law), the Twelve Tables (tab. 1,1 ff.; Tabulae duodecim, c.450 BC) prescribes…

Mors litis

(172 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] (literally: ‘death of a lawsuit’). According to Gai. Inst. 4,104 a means introduced by the l. Iulia iudiciorum privatorum specially for the iudicium legitimum ( iudicium ), to limit the duration of lawsuits. Whereas all other lawsuits were limited by the period in office of the magistrates who appointed judges, ML was what happened when after 18 months there had been no judgment. From the lex Irnitana (ch. 91, l.2) it followed that this regulation was transferred - evidently by pretending that the municipal process was identical to the iudicium legitimum - also to this…

Deductio

(345 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Legal term There are many different senses of deductio in specialized legal language: in civil case-law the expression in iudicium deducere usually indicates the transition of the dispute to the judgement stage, and so approximately corresponds to the modern concept of pendency. Deductio in domum is the ceremonial introduction of a wife into her husband's house (Dig. 23,2,5). A further frequent use of deductio is to denote the ‘deduction’ of specific components of a debt owed to a provider of services: for example the deduction of costs (D…

Antestatio

(93 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] is the formalised notice of a witness, associated with a tweak of the ear (Plin. HN 11,103), before the permitted use of force by the plaintiff against a defendant who does not comply with the in ius vocatio and does not offer any vindex. Antestatio is attested for the Twelve Tables (1. 1); it became superfluous, and yet was apparently retained, on introduction of the standard procedural   litis denuntiatio . -- Antestatus is a mancipatio witness, CIL 6.10239.  Vocatio in ius;  Denuntiatio Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) Bibliography Wieacker, RRG, 448.

Comperendinatio

(184 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] describes according to Gai. Inst. 4,15 an agreement of the parties to appear on the day after next before a iudex (Fest. 355,1; Prob. 4,9: in diem tertium sive perendinum; for Roman calculations of court dates cf. Gell. NA 10,24,9), as had already been provided for in the Twelve Tables. It did not require the form of a stipulation because the consequences of missing it were considered sufficient as a sanction. How the transition from the procedure in iure to apud iudicem specifically came about in the formular procedure is unclear, because the comperendinatio is no longer…

Postulatio

(214 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] is occasionally used generally for a demand or a request in Roman law as a synonym of petitio . For a Roman formula lawsuit in the 3rd cent. AD (in the context of the edict title de postulando; cf. also Cod. Iust. 2,6) Ulpian defines postulare as desiderium suum vel amici sui in iure ... exponere: vel alterius desiderio contradicere ('to expound to the court one's own or a friend's request or to contradict somebody else's request', Dig. 3,1,1,2). By a postulatio actionis a plaintiff requested a praetor to allow the action on which he had agreed with the accused by way of an editio

Litis denuntiatio

(279 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] (‘Dispute announcement’) is a form of the Roman procedural opening that was in use for a relatively short time (essentially in the 4th cent. AD) but then stopped being practised because of its ponderousness. Its characteristic feature is that the litis denuntiatio (LD) addressed by the plaintiff to the defendant in written form is served upon the latter not directly and immediately but on the basis of a statement of claim application ( postulatio simplex) with the permission or even with the help of the court. This form of opening therefore represents a…

Rescript procedure

(222 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] This type of Roman trial developed from the reign of Hadrian (2nd cent. AD) as a special form of the civil inquiry of cognizance ( cognitio ). Its peculiarity consisted in the fact that the decisive legal issue (i.e. not also the correctness of the facts) was clarified in advance for the specific case by the princeps, by means of a written response ( rescriptum ) to the written enquiry of the party who would henceforth be the plaintiff, with the consequence that henceforth all that required examination was the correctness of …

Iudicium

(1,188 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] A central concept of Roman  procedural law, it appears in several different senses: in the wider sense for the whole process, in the narrower sense (esp. in the context of the legis actio and formulary procedure which are divided into different procedural stages) for the last stage which took place before the judge (  iudex ). Upon transition to the cognitio procedure (  cognitio ) and concomitant elimination of the procedural stages, iudicium then only referred to the whole process for which the word processus has been in habitual usage since the MA. Additional …

Arbitration

(410 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] Arbitration, unlike criminal and civil jurisdiction, which operate with the force of the state, is invoked voluntarily by the disputing parties. It has neither been proven nor completely refuted that because of this lack of state influence arbitration represents the beginning of all jurisdiction (thus for Rome esp. [1]). In Roman sources in any case arbitration has an independent position alongside all three types of state trial (  ordo). There was also arbitration already in Greece (see   diaitētai [1]). The Roman compromissum (agreement of the parties to subm…

Condemnatio

(256 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] In criminal proceedings the sentencing of the accused (Cic. Verr. 2,75). In civil proceedings the condemnatio is according to Gai. Inst. 4,43 that part of the proceeding formula that grants a private judge in the context of the suit brought forward (  intentio ) and the statement of facts (  demonstratio ) the power to sentence or acquit ( qua iudici condemnandi absolvendive potestas permittitur). It is only required in payment suits. Gai. Inst. 4,48ff. further states that condemnatio relates to a sum of money ( condemnatio pecuniaria). This restriction (which was o…

Tempus utile

(147 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] (literally: 'usable time'). In Roman law, a particular manner of calculating a time limit. Whereas in the case of a tempus continuum ('continuous period of time') the initial date and the expiry of the term are unalterably fixed, TU implies taking into account only those days on which the time can be used by the relevant party. Either the beginning of the term is made dependent on the first possible use and the term then proceeds as a continuum (e.g. praetorian lawsuits, Dig. 15,2,1 pr.), or the beginning is fixed and in the course of the term only those da…

Iurisdictio

(596 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] Literally ‘speaking law’. Where iurisdictio was split into various stages of procedure (in particular in iure, apud iudicem), it means the sovereign powers conferred on a Roman court magistrate for observing judicial practice. This term was originally used for private judicial practice, but in the 2nd cent. AD it was also extended to criminal judicial practice and to the procedure of cognition (  cognitio ), in the context of which iurisdictio describes the official judicial competences as a whole - in other words also the authority to pass judgemen…

Advocatus

(520 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] The advocatus, as ‘one called on’, developed from adviser to the ultimate legal adviser in the late classical period (around AD 200). At first advocatus referred to a usually influential person, who supported someone as an act of friendship in court proceedings (both in criminal and -- notorious for being more boring, Cic. Opt. Gen. 9 f. -- civil law) -- simply by his presence or by his legal knowledge (general knowledge acquired through his training and education); cf. Ps.-Asc. on Cic. in Caec. 11. Here he is distinguished (at least theoretically) from the patronus, who …

Forum

(8,477 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
I. Archaeology and urban studies [German version] A. Definition and Function Latin term for market, market place; rarely also the forecourt of a tomb (in the meaning of Greek drómos, e.g. Cic. Leg. 2,61) or part of a wine press (Varro, Rust. 1,54; Columella 11,2,71). As the mercantile and administrative centre of a Roman city ( Town/City), the forum, which took the form of a large open space framed by buildings, was essentially the equivalent of the Greek  agora. A location at the intersection of the   decumanus and   cardo in the city centre is the rule in …

Editio

(730 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] The term editio is derived from the verb edere (‘to present, to show, to announce’) and has several meanings within the legal realm: (1) The editio actionis (Dig. 2,13) refers to the announcement required, in order for a trial to be sub judice in the formulary procedure, from the plaintiff towards the defendant, stating the type of charge(-formula) the plaintiff intends to initiate against the defendant. As long as the defendant accepts the formula ( accipere iudicium), the   litis contestatio (attestation of conflict) is established. For a…

Sententia

(465 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Aphorism, v. Gnome [1] II A; Proverbs Aphorism, v. Gnome [1] II A; Proverbs Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) [German version] [2] Legal verdict Literally etymologically derived from the root sin, the sense of something uttered; in Roman legal terminology, e.g. the sense of a private legal action (cf. e.g. Dig. 28,1,1 on a testament) or a law (cf. Dig. 23,2,44,5). Sententia in particular meant the verdict, in civil or criminal law, delivered by a judge ( iudex , arbiter ). In this sense, sententia was already used for the process of the legis actio

Satisdatio

(197 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] In Roman law, satisdatio (the giving of a security) constituted a special form of the cautio (warranty). Anyone obliged to the satisdatio had to provide a guarantor at regular intervals (Dig. 2,8,1). The guarantor had to be idoneus (“fit”, i.e. solvent); this could be established by an arbiter (a judge with administrative discretion) (Dig. 2,8,9 and 10 pr). It was also a fundamental requirement that the bondsman was of the same legal status as the party furnishing security. Cases in which a satisdatio could be arranged by the praetor or where it was even prescribed ipso ju…

Recuperatores

(277 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] From re-capere, literally 'to obtain back', for which purpose the recuperatores were originally appointed in support of Roman citizens within the framework of international legal relationships (Fest. 342 L.: reciperatio): they were meant to help the citizens get back what they had lost (probably above all in war) or had had illegally taken away from them. They then also came to a decision in the repetundae process ( repetundarum crimen ), in which it was a matter of the return of goods which the Roman magistrates had extorted in o…
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