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Indo-European languages

(1,016 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] A. General, definition Since the beginning of the 19th cent. primarily outside the German language area (cf. French langues indo-européennes

Polysyndeton

(188 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] (πολυσύνδετον/ polysýndeton, 'bound together many times'). Repetition of a coordinating copulative or disjunctive conjunction (cf. Quint. Inst. 9,3,50: “schema, quod coniunctionibus abundat: ... hoc πολυσύνδετον dicitur”; also Rutilius Lupus 1,14: “ hoc schema efficitur, cum sententiae multorum articulorum convenienti copula continentur)”. This stylistic figure of speech concerns the co-ordination of single words or syntactical units (groups of words, clauses, sentences) and emphasises the weight of individual elements. Thus, for exam…

Linear B

(1,104 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] A. Basics The Linear B script, deciphered in 1952 by M. Ventris and J. Chadwick, renders the earliest known Greek dialect, Mycenaean. As in the case of the older Linear A, the character signs of this writing system consist of lines ( Greece, writing systems). Plath, Robert (Erlangen) [German version] B. Find spots The concentration in three regions (a) Crete (Knossos = KN [1; 2; 7], Khania = KH [5; 6; 7], Armenoi = AR, Mallia = MA, Mamelouko = MAM [7]), (b) Peloponnese with Argolid (Mycenae = MY [4; 7], Tiryns = TI [4; 7], Midea = M…

Parenthesis

(336 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] The common technical term since Graeco-Roman times (Greek: παρένθεσις/ parénthesis, παρέμπτωσις/ parémptosis; Latin: interpositio, interclusio, 'insertion'; cf. Quint. Inst. 9,3,23) for a unit inserted into a sentence that remains structurally independent of the entire syntactic surroundings.  The parenthesis can consist of a single word, a group of words, an entire sentence, or compound…

Tmesis

(262 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] (from τμῆσις/ tmêsis, ‘the act of cutting, separation’). An ancient term for the phenomenon of breaking up compound word forms (primarily verbal forms) by inserting or rearranging its constituents: cf. Serv. Aen. 1,412 “Figura tmesis est, quae fit, cum secto uno sermone aliquid interponimus” (“Tmesis is the rhetorical device that is formed by splitting up an expression and putting something in between”). This notion, h…

Digamma

(519 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)

Asyn­deton

(147 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] (ἀσύνδετον). ‘Unconnected’, cf. Aristot. Interpr. 17a 17 or Rh. 1413b 29; Latin correspondences: dissolutio (Quint. Inst. 9,3,50) or solutum (Aquila Rhet. 41). Conjunctionless stringing together of at least two coordinated syntactic constructions (individual words, groups of words, parts of a sentence or sentences) that are related to each other from the point of view of content and logic. Accordingly, differentiation is made between the word and the sentence asyndeton anthithesis…

Prolepsis

(186 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] (πρόληψις/ prólēpsis, 'anticipation'; Latin anticipatio or praeceptio). Originally a technical term of forensic oratory (Quint. Inst. 4,1,49) denoting an addressing and rebuttal of opposing arguments before they have actually been formulated, the prolepsis as a rhetorical figure of syntactic inversion designates the anticipation of a nominal sentence constituent. A distinction is drawn between adjectival and substantival prolepsis: In adjectival prolepsis, the adjective attaches to a substantive a…

Hapax legomenon

(305 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] (ἅπαξ λεγόμενον; hápax legómenon, ‘said only once’, also referred to as ἅπαξ εἰρημένον/ hápax eirēménon): in the strictest sense, hapax legomenon is a technical term for a word that is attested in only one place within the entire textual corpus of a language (literature, inscriptions, i.a.). One must distinguish between the following: (a) actual creations of new expressions, that is, forms created poetically, esp. those supported through the metre, (b) words that only appear once due to the nature of the sources (mainly spec…

Greece, systems of writing

(568 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] The history of  writing shows that throughout the world there are fundamentally only three ways of transcribing the spoken word: pictograms, syllabic scripts and phonetic alphabets (in that order). All known scripts use either one of those techniques or a combination of them. Only the last of the three is suitable for an adequate represent…

Indo-Aryan languages

(324 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] The Indo-Aryan languages (IL) comprise the majority of those  Indo-European languages that have been spoken on the Indian sub-continent since the immigration from the north-west in the 2nd millennium BC. Together with the  Iranian languages, they form the Indo-Iranian branch of this family of languages. Old Indo-Aryan (less precise: Old Indian) begins just before 1200 BC with Vedic and continues in Sanscrit [1. 16-48]. As an ancient and early-attested Indo-European language, it has many correspondences with Latin and particularly also with Greek that are not just formal; therefore it is also of the utmost importance for the reconstruction of the Indo-European basic language: cf. the noun (or pronoun) endings in t…

Mycenaean

(838 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] Mycenaean is the term for the form of Greek occurring in Late Bronze Age ( c. 1420-1180 BC) texts written in Linear B. This syllabic script (Greece, systems of writing) is suited only to a limited extent to recording the forms of spoken words: thus the male name e-u-po-ro can be read as / Ehupōlos/Εὔπωλος, / Ehuporos/Εὔπορος, / Ehuphoros/ Εὔφορος or / Ehuphrōn/Εὔφρων. Hence the phonematic translation of Mycenaean syllabic sign sequences is based on often combinatorial consideration of later linguistic material from the 1st millennium BC and …

Apo koinou

(142 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] (σχῆμα ἀπὸ κοινοῦ ‘a figure created through what is common’, cf. Apoll. Dysk. syntax 122,14). Unlike the ancient [1; 3.5-9] imprecise understanding of this, still common today [2], as a generally one-off formation of an element common to two sentences (or clauses) ( Ellipse,  Zeugma), apo koinou is now understood to mean ‘the logical and grammatical-syntactic relationship between one sentence element and two others’ [3.12]. The element that is used several times usually stands between the affected units. Examples: εὕδει δ' ἀνὰ σκάπτῳ

Apo koinu

(134 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[English version] (σχῆμα ἀπὸ κοινοῦ “durch Gemeinsames bewirkte Figur”, vgl. Apoll. Dysk. synt. 122,14). Abweichend von der ant. [1; 3.5-9] und bis h. [2] üblichen unscharfen Auffassung als generell einmaliger Setzung eines zwei (Teil-) Sätzen gemeinsamen Elementes (Ellipse, Zeugma) versteht man jetzt unter A. ›die sinngemäß wie grammatikalisch-syntaktische Beziehung eines Satzgliedes auf zwei andere‹ [3.12]. Das mehrfach bezogene Glied steht gewöhnlich zw. den betr. Einheiten. Beispiele: εὕδει δ' ἀνὰ σκάπτῳ

Prolepsis

(166 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)

Mykenisch

(780 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[English version] Als M. bezeichnet man diejenige Sprachform des Griechischen, in der die in der Schrift Linear B verfaßten Texte aus der Spätbrz. (ca. 1420-1180 v.Chr.) wiedergegeben werden. Diese Silbenschrift (Griechenland, Schriftsysteme) eignet sich nur eingeschränkt für die Erfassung der gesprochenen Wortformen: So kann der Männername e-u-po-ro etwa als / Ehupōlos/Εὔπωλος, / Ehuporos/Εὔπορος, / Ehuphoros/ Εὔφορος oder / Ehuphrōn/Εὔφρων gelesen werden. Die phonematische Umsetzung der myk. Silbenzeichenfolgen beruht daher auf der oft kombinatorisch…

Ellipse

(191 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[English version] (griech. ἔλλειψις: “Auslassung”, lat. ellı̄psis: Quint. inst. 8,6,21, vgl. 9,3,58); im Unterschied zur Brachylogie tatsächliche Einsparung einer synt. erforderlichen Satzkonstituente, die im Wortlaut (nicht nur dem Sinn nach) ohne weiteres aus der Situation ergänzt werden kann (vgl. Don. 4,395,11: e. est defectus quidam necessariae dictionis). Beispiele aus der Alltagssprache: Καλλίας ὁ Ἱππονίκου (sc. υἱός), Plat. apol. 20a; ad Dianae (sc. fanum oder aedem), Ter. Ad. 582. Als rhetorisches Stilmittel dient die E. der Raffung und der lebendig…

Griechenland, Schriftsysteme

(514 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[English version] Die Gesch. der Schrift (S.) zeigt, daß es auf der ganzen Welt grundsätzlich drei Verfahren gibt, um das gesprochene Wort schriftlich zu fixieren: Ideogramm-, Silben- und Laut-S. (in dieser Abfolge). Alle bekannten S. benutzen entweder eine dieser Methoden oder eine Kombination aus ihnen. Nur letztere eignet sich für eine adäquate Erfassung der Lautkomplexe. Den Sonderfall einer Laut-S. stellt die v.a. im Orient beheimatete Kons.-S. dar. Die ä…
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