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Salvation History

(2,748 words)

Author(s): Reumann, John
1. Terms and Concept A technical term in biblical theology (§1.2.5), “salvation history” (Ger. Heilsgeschichte) arose at a time when, as J. C. Beck put it, history was god (Historiography 3.6), not reason (Enlightenment) or feeling (Experience; Schleiermacher’s Theology). Under influences from covenant theology (§3.1; J. Cocceius [1603–69]) and Pietism (J. A. Bengel [1687–1752]), the concept developed in the Erlangen school, with its emphases on biblical hermeneutics, confessional ecclesiology, our communion…

Righteousness, Justice

(6,688 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter | Reumann, John | Luz, Ulrich | Strohm, Theodor
1. OT 1.1. Term The Heb. root ṣdq is as comprehensive in meaning as the Eng. “right(eous),” Ger. (ge)recht, Gk. nomos, or Lat. ius (Law). It embraces, besides the narrower legal sense of justice, judgment, and standard for what is right (Ger. Gericht, Rechts-norm), the wider ethicosocial sphere of wholesome and salutary relationships. The masc. ṣedeq denotes a state of beneficently ordered relationships between people or between people and God; the fem. ṣĕdāqâ refers to conduct that corresponds to this state or promotes it; the verb ṣdq describes the related action…


(1,769 words)

Author(s): Reumann, John
1. Biblical Foundations 1.1. Terms The Gk. noun koinōnia and related words—with the root meaning “(have in) common, communal; have a share or part (in something); go partners in”—occurs some 119 times in the Bible (J. Reumann). There is no corresponding term in Hebrew, little of significant use in the LXX, and no use by Jesus. The background of this word lies in secular Greek, where it meant, for example, “(business) partner” (Luke 5:10) or “possessions held in common” (see Acts 2:44–45; 4:32). In Latin, communio, with its many meanings, was the usual equivalent of koinōnia, although …


(1,684 words)

Author(s): Harnisch, Wolfgang | Reumann, John
1. NT Usage and Background The Gk. noun kērygma means “proclamation, what is heralded aloud.” There are eight occurrences in ¶ the NT, six of them in Paul (1 Cor. 1:21, preaching, the apostle’s priority; 2:4, Christ crucified; 15:14; Rom. 16:25; 2 Tim. 4:17; Titus 1:3) and two in the Synoptics, plus “the sacred and imperishable proclamation of eternal salvation” in the shorter ending of Mark. Some scholars stress not just what is preached but the dynamic action of proclaiming (C. F. Evans; R. H. Mounce, Essential Nature, 64, “content in the act of being proclaimed”). The verb kēryssō, …

Philippians, Epistle of Paul to the

(1,547 words)

Author(s): Reumann, John
[German Version] I. Content and Problems Paul (Paul, Saint) and Timothy (Timothy, Saint; 2:19–23) in Philippians follow the form of contemporary letters: prescript in 1:1f.; prayer(report) in 1:3–11; body (news about Paul: 1:12–26; about the Philippians: 1:27ff., esp. the parenesis and caring admonitions in 1:27–2:5; 2:12–18; 3:2f., 15–17; 4:1–9); greetings and blessing in 4:21–23. Rhetorical analyses vary. Some sections are epideictic, others deliberative, as Paul speaks “friend to friends.” Philippi…

Confession (of Faith)

(12,201 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph | Kreuzer, Siegfried | Reumann, John | Staats, Reinhart | Holze, Heinrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Bible – III. Church History – IV. Systematics – V. Practical Theology – VI. Law – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. History of Religions The term confession refers to various phenomena, including the confession of faith and of sin. A confession of faith can be understood as an officially sanctioned, formulaic summary of the central doctrines of a religious or a confessional community (“denomination”). Recited in cultic procedures and/or in everyday piety, i…


(1,566 words)

Author(s): Reumann, John
[English Version] I. Inhalt und Probleme Paulus und Timotheus (2,19–23) schließen sich im Phil dem Briefschema (Brief) der Zeit an: Präskript 1,1f.; Gebet(sbericht) 1,3–11; Korpus (Neuigkeiten über Paulus: 1,12–26; über die Philipper: 1,27ff., bes. die Paränese und fürsorgliche Mahnungen in 1,27–2,5; 2,12–18; 3,2f. 15–17; 4,1–9); Grüße und Segenswunsch 4,21–23. Die rhetorischen Analysen weichen voneinander ab. Einige Abschnitte sind epideiktisch, andere symbuleutisch; Paulus spricht als »Freund zu Fr…