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Confession (of Faith)

(12,201 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph | Kreuzer, Siegfried | Reumann, John | Staats, Reinhart | Holze, Heinrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Bible – III. Church History – IV. Systematics – V. Practical Theology – VI. Law – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. History of Religions The term confession refers to various phenomena, including the confession of faith and of sin. A confession of faith can be understood as an officially sanctioned, formulaic summary of the central doctrines of a religious or a confessional community (“denomination”). Recited in cultic procedures and/or in everyday piety, it serves as a formula of affirmation and identification, marks out the individual and corporate religious identity and is, consequently, significant in affiliation rites. Simultaneously, it functions as the structural principle of the evolution of doctrine from the scholarly level to lay teaching, for example in catechisms. With this dual function in cult and dogma, the confession has a community-forming and -preserving impact, serves to demarcate other religious communities and “heresies,” but, at the same time, provides space for interpretive…

Philippians, Epistle of Paul to the

(1,547 words)

Author(s): Reumann, John
[German Version] I. Content and Problems Paul (Paul, Saint) and Timothy (Timothy, Saint; 2:19–23) in Philippians follow the form of contemporary letters: prescript in 1:1f.; prayer(report) in 1:3–11; body (news about Paul: 1:12–26; about the Philippians: 1:27ff., esp. the parenesis and caring admonitions in 1:27–2:5; 2:12–18; 3:2f., 15–17; 4:1–9); greetings and blessing in 4:21–23. Rhetorical analyses vary. Some sections are epideictic, others deliberative, as Paul speaks “friend to friends.” Philippians is not fully explained as a “le…

Salvation History

(2,748 words)

Author(s): Reumann, John
1. Terms and Concept A technical term in biblical theology (§1.2.5), “salvation history” (Ger. Heilsgeschichte) arose at a time when, as J. C. Beck put it, history was god (Historiography 3.6), not reason (Enlightenment) or feeling (Experience; Schleiermacher’s Theology). Under influences from covenant theology (§3.1; J. Cocceius [1603–69]) and Pietism (J. A. Bengel [1687–1752]), the concept developed in the Erlangen school, with its emphases on biblical hermeneutics, confessional ecclesiology, our communion…

Righteousness, Justice

(6,688 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter | Reumann, John | Luz, Ulrich | Strohm, Theodor
1. OT 1.1. Term The Heb. root ṣdq is as comprehensive in meaning as the Eng. “right(eous),” Ger. (ge)recht, Gk. nomos, or Lat. ius (Law). It embraces, besides the narrower legal sense of justice, judgment, and standard for what is right (Ger. Gericht, Rechts-norm), the wider ethicosocial sphere of wholesome and salutary relationships. The masc. ṣedeq denotes a state of beneficently ordered relationships between people or between people and God; the …


(1,769 words)

Author(s): Reumann, John
1. Biblical Foundations 1.1. Terms The Gk. noun koinōnia and related words—with the root meaning “(have in) common, communal; have a share or part (in something); go partners in”—occurs some 119 times in the Bible (J. Reumann). There is no corresponding term in Hebrew, little of significant use in the LXX, and no use by Jesus. The background of this word lies in secular Greek, where it meant, for example, “(business) partner” (…


(1,684 words)

Author(s): Harnisch, Wolfgang | Reumann, John
1. NT Usage and Background The Gk. noun kērygma means “proclamation, what is heralded aloud.” There are eight occurrences in ¶ the NT, six of them in Paul (1 Cor. 1:21, preaching, the apostle’s priority; 2:4, Christ crucified; 15:14; Rom. 16:25; 2 Tim. 4:17; Titus 1:3) and two in the Synoptics, plus “the sacred and imperishable proclamation of eternal salvation” in the shorter ending of Mark. Some scholars stress not just what is preached but the dynamic action of proclaiming (C. F. Evans; R. H. Mounce, Essential Nature, 64, “content in the act of being proclaimed”). The verb kēryssō, “announce, proclaim aloud,” is much more common (61 times in the NT, esp. in the Gospels and Paul). The practice is rooted in the institution of the herald ( kēryx) in the Greek world, going back to Homer. Heralds appeared in the city-state, athletic games, diplomatic missions, and cult life; the (Stoic) philosopher could be a herald for the god(s). No figure in the OT, even the prophet, is comparable; kēryssō vocabulary is rare in the Septuagint…


(1,566 words)

Author(s): Reumann, John
[English Version] I. Inhalt und Probleme Paulus und Tim…