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Fries, Jakob Friedrich

(549 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] (Aug 23, 1773, Barby – Aug 10, 1843, Jena), a philosopher in the circle of so-called German Idealism, a physicist and mathematician, the founder of Friesianism (Ernst Friedrich Apelt) or neo-Friesianism (Leonard Nelson; R. Otto). From a Herrnhuter family, Fries attended the school in Niesky together with F.D.E. Schleiermacher, with whom his thought in the philosophy of religion has affinity, and studied with Ernst Platner, among others, in Leipzig and with J.G. Fichte in Jena, whe…

Present and Future Eschatology

(570 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] The distinction between present and future eschatology as the doctrine of the “last things” can be derived from the ambiguity of the term “last.” On the one hand, “last” may be understood qualitatively, or in terms of value, as what is ultimately valid; on the other hand, it may be understood temporally or chronologically as the final culmination. The first understanding is a theme in eschatology oriented to the present, or beyond time, the second in eschatology oriented to the fu…

Imminent Parousia Expectation

(387 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] The term imminent Parousia expectation refers in the first place to the primitive Christian expectation, in the context of an apocalyptic conception of the world (Apocalypticism), of the imminent return (Parousia) of the crucified and risen Lord for the final establishing of the kingdom of God still in the lifetime of the first generation of Christians (cf. 1 Thess 4:17; Phil 4:5; 1 Cor 7:29). This eschatological (Eschatology) orientation (ἐλπίς/ elpís) resulted from the liberating (Liberation) experience of having overcome life-threatening and ungo…

Universal Salvation

(873 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion Given the substantially diverse notions of salvation and redemption in the philosophy of religion (including realization and fulfillment of essential potentiality, reunion of what is separate, identity, and essentification), universal salvation can be understood as a metaphysical, ontotheological, or transcendentally grounded soteriological conception for comprehending the unity of everything real both qualitatively (intensively) and quantitatively (extensive…

Existentialism (Theology)

(1,505 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] Existential theology is less a unified theological position or method than a particular theological attitude in the sense of a polemical and appellative corrective. It acquires its specific profile through the critical rejection of a domesticated and self-satisfied Christianity, but also of a theology that has a bias toward the ideal of objective science. For S. Kierkegaard ( Sygdommen til Døden, 1849; ET: The Sickness unto Death, 1983; Christelige Taler, 1848; ET: Christian Discourses, 1997), the inaugurator of what came to be …


(313 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] Especially in the context of an apocalyptic theology of history (History, Theology of), premoni-¶ tions of the end of the world and the return of Jesus Christ (Parousia) as judge and savior based on portents and omens are described and interpreted by initiates by virtue of special revelations and visions. Against the background of the delayed Parousia and God’s apparent abandonment of the world, such signs are intended to impart confidence. The painful discrepancy between belief and experience …


(487 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] (Gk ἀποκατάστασις πάντων) or the redemption/restoration of all is the eschatological notion that all human beings (things, creatures) without exception will be received into eschatological salvation (the kingdom of God). One the one hand, apocatastasis conflicts with the more common eschatological notion of a “double outcome,” which envisions an…

Existential Interpretation

(658 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] Against the background of the existentialism (theology) of R. Bultmann ( Neues Testament und Mythologie, 1941; ET: The New Testament and Mythology, 1941), existential interpretation refers to a hermeneutics (III; V, 2) of biblical, especially NT, texts, specifically grounded in existential analysis (Dasein) as a counterpart to the program of demythologization. It assumes the foreignness of the biblical …

Borderline Situation

(358 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] This concept was introduced by K. Jaspers to describe the specific existence of the human person as distinct from all that exists as a thing (Existentialism [philosophy]; Existentialism [theology]). A borderline situation cannot be planned and controlled by the reason; it is contingent, and is an existential datum of human existence like for e…


(396 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] As the opposite of election or salvation by God, and in divergence from common linguistic usage in dogmatics, rejection must be distinguished from damnation in so far as it is not necessarily associated with eschatological consequences in terms of definitive exclusion from salvation (Kingdom of God: IV). The apostle Paul’s struggle over the fate of the chosen people of Israel, in the face of their widespread non-acceptance of the new covenant of God with all humankind in Jesus Chr…


(336 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[English Version] . Als Gegenbegriff zur Erwählung oder Rettung Gottes muß V. – anders als im üblichen dogmatischen Sprachgebrauch – von Verdammnis insofern unterschieden werden, als mit V. nicht zwangsläufig eschatische Konsequenzen im Sinne eines definitiven Ausschlusses vom Heil (Reich Gottes: IV.) verbunden sind. Insbes. das Ringen des Apostels Paulus um das Geschick des auserwählten Volkes Israel angesichts des von ihm mehrheitlich nicht anerkannten neuen Bundes Gottes mit allen Menschen in J…

Präsentische und futurische Eschatologie

(483 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[English Version] . Die Unterscheidung zw. p. und f. Eschatologie als Lehre von den »letzten Dingen« kann zunächst von der Doppeldeutigkeit des »Letzten« hergeleitet werden. Denn zum einen kann das Letzte qualitativ oder wertmäßig als Letztgültiges, zum anderen kann es zeitlich oder gesch. als abschließendes Ende verstanden werden. Das Erstgenannte ist dann Thema einer gegenwartsorientierten oder überzeitlichen p.E., das zweite Thema einer zukunftsbezogenen (Zukunft) f.E. Aber auch im Blick auf di…


(270 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[English Version] . Insbes. im Rahmen apokalyptischer Geschichtstheologie werden V. des Weltendes und der Wiederkunft (Parusie) Jesu Christi als Richter und Retter beschrieben und von Eingeweihten aufgrund spezieller Offenbarungen und Visionen gedeutet. So soll den Glaubenden vor dem Hintergrund von Parusieverzögerung und scheinbarer Gottverlassenheit der Welt Zuversicht vermittelt werden. Dazu wird die leidvolle Diskrepanz zw. Geglaubtem und Erlebtem in einen prinzipiell verstehbaren Gesamtzusamm…


(297 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[English Version] . Mit N. ist zunächst die urchristl., in ein apokalyptisches Weltbild (Apokalyptik) eingefaßte Erwartung der baldigen Wiederkehr (Parusie) des gekreuzigten und auferstandenen Herrn zur endgültigen Aufrichtung des Reiches Gottes noch zu Lebzeiten der ersten Christengeneration gemeint (vgl.1Thess 4,17; Phil 4,5; 1Kor 7,29). Diese eschatische (Eschatologie) Haltung (ε᾿λπι´ς/elpi´s) resultiert aus der befreienden (Befreiung) Erfahrung der Überwindung von lebensbedrohlichen und widergöttlichen Mächten in der Begegnung mit Jesus …


(937 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut | Oberdorfer, Bernd
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Dogmatics I. Philosophy of Religion Future is relevant to the philosophy of religion, first, in relation to the analysis of existence (Existentialism [Philosophy], Existentialism [Theology]). According to this, future is the content of approaching time that lies before us and is ultimately inaccessible despite all planning (Unavailability). This content reveals its importance for the understanding of human existence in contrast to other beings that are subje…


(1,102 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut | Bosse, Katrin
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion Especially in the tradition of theologia negativa, unavailability (or inaccessibility, Ger. Unverfügbarkeit) char­acterizes divinity, the unconditioned (Absolute necessity), and the absolute, which is divorced (Lat. absolutum) from all relationships and conditions and thus is not available and accessible in any natural, material intramundane referential context. In categorial distinction from that context, it is implicit and premised as the (metaphysical or transcendental) ground of …

Absolute, The

(937 words)

Author(s): Stolzenberg, Jürgen | Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion I. Philosophy Etymologically, the word “absolute” means something separate from and independent of everything that is only relative. In this sense, the absolute can be understood ontologically as substance, logically as principle. If the absolute is taken as a singulare tantum, then it refers to something apart from which there is nothing that exists independently. This raises the question of how to conceive the …


(1,399 words)

Author(s): Westhelle, Vítor | Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics I. Dogmatics While the term liberty (Lat. libertas) denotes the state or property of being free, liberation describes the process through which liberty or freedom is achieved. Liberation is the conscious praxis of freedom to achieve freedom from oppression (Freire). In the New Testament, ἐλευθερόω/ eleutheróō denotes the process of being set free through the work of Christ from the dominion of sin (V), death (VI), and decay (Rom 6:18, 22; 8:2, 21; John 8:32, 36). Enslavement and captivity are the objec…


(724 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut | Oberdorfer, Bernd
[English Version] I. Religionsphilosophisch Von religionsphilos. Relevanz ist Z. zunächst in daseinsanalytischer Hinsicht (Existenzphilosophie, Existenztheologie). Demnach ist Z. der vor uns liegende, bei aller Planbarkeit letztlich unverfügbare (Unverfügbarkeit) auf uns zukommende Gehalt der Zeit. Dieser erschließt seine Bedeutung für das Verstehen menschlicher Existenz im Unterschied zu anderem Seienden, das der Zeit im Entstehen wie Vergehen unterliegt, nicht primär anhand einer präzisen Festste…


(958 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut | Bosse, Katrin
[English Version] I. Religionsphilosophisch U. ist insbes. in der Tradition der theologia negativa eine spezifische Charakterisierung des Göttlichen, Unbedingten und Absoluten, das von allen Bindungen und Bedingungen losgelöst (lat. absolutum) und insofern nicht in einem innerweltl., ding- und naturhaften Verweisungszusammenhang greifbar und verfügt ist. Es wird diesem vielmehr in kategorialer Unterschiedenheit als (metaphysischer oder transzendentaler) Einheitsgrund alles bestimmender Wirklichke…
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