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History/Concepts of History

(12,750 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Kurt | Görg, Manfred | Schlüter, Margarete | Römer, Nils | Cancik, Hubert | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Ancient Near East and Israel – III. Judaism – IV. Greece and Rome – V. New Testament – VI. Church History – VII. Dogmatics – VIII. Ethics – IX. Philosophy I. Religious Studies History is a major aspect of the study of religion. Apart from its roots in the Enlightenment idea of tolerance, it owes its scholarly development to the historicism of the 19th century. As a result, the expression history of religions ( Religionsgeschichte, histoire des religions, storia delle religioni) has remained dominant in continental Europe, in con…


(3,990 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Houtman, Cornelis | Rowland, Christopher | Lang, Bernhard | Farrow, Douglas B. | Et al.
[German Version] Cosmology and Kingdom of God I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament –III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Dogmatics – VI. Contemporary Art I. Religious Studies 1. To a vision that has not been tamed by scientific theory, heaven is a realm of the beyond (Hereafter, Concepts of the). Like the netherworld, it invades the human world as air or earth and sea, but it is beyond the experience of mortals; it is concrete, but cannot be entered. Observation of the concrete phenomena confirms the symbol …


(229 words)

Author(s): Rowland, Christopher
[German Version] is mentioned only in the Gospel of John where he appears as a key disciple of Jesus (John 1:47–51). He is a witness to his resurrection in Galilee (John 21:2; where he is said to be from Cana in Galilee). Nathanael is a recipient of the promise of an open heaven and of the vision of the angels ascending and descending upon the Son of Man (John 1:51), which alludes most clearly to Jacob’s vision in Gen 28:12. This passage probably lies behind the identification of Nathanael as an I…


(4,831 words)

Author(s): Hellholm, David | Kratz, Reinhard Gregor | Frankfurter, David | Dan, Joseph | Collins, Adela Yarbro | Et al.
[German Version] I. Definition of the Term as a Problem for the History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. Jewish Apocalypticism – IV. New Testament – V. Church History – VI. Dogmatics – VII. Islam – VIII. Art History I. Definition of the Term as a Problem for the History of Religions As a phenomenon in the history of religions, apocalypticism represents a form of revealed communication distinct from other types such as prophecy (Prophets and prophecy: I), oracle, mantic…


(3,327 words)

Author(s): Rowland, Christopher
Chiliasm/Millenarianism (or Millennialism) refers to a set of ideas and takes its inspiration from Rev 20:1–6, where the saints who had been beheaded for their testimony to Christ reign with him for a 1,000 years (Bietenhard, 1955). During this period Satan is confined so that he would not deceive the nations. What is crucial about this passage is that it looks forward to a messianic reign on earth. This was a widely held view that early Christianity inherited from Jewish eschatology (Scholem, 1971; Saperstein, 1992). Arguably, it was the dominant eschatologica…
Date: 2020-12-17


(204 words)

Author(s): Rowland, Christopher
[English Version] wird nur im Joh erwähnt, wo er als eine Schlüsselfigur unter den Jüngern Jesu erscheint (Joh 1,47–51). Er ist ein Auferstehungszeuge in Galiläa (Joh 21,2; dort mit Angabe seiner Herkunft aus Kana in Galiläa). N. gehört zu den Empfängern der Verheißung eines offenen Himmels und der Vision der über dem Menschensohn herauf- und herabfahrenden Engel (Joh 1,51), die sich eindeutig auf die Vision Jakobs in Gen 28,12 bezieht. Diese Passage steht wahrscheinlich hinter der Beschreibung N.…


(2,263 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Rowland, Christopher | Rosenau, Hartmut
[English Version] I. Klassisches Altertum Das häufig gebrauchte griech. Verb παρει˜n̆αι/parei´nai, »zugegen sein, hilfreich zur Seite stehen«, wird in bezug auf die Götter in einer speziellen Bedeutung gebraucht. Als Substantiv erhält P. (griech. παρουσι´α/parousi´a) in hell. Zeit die Bedeutung eines terminus technicus und bezieht sich auf ein Ritual, das die Ankunft inszeniert, mit der Gott/König nun nahe, mitten unter seinem Volk wohnt (etwa: Tegea feiert Hadrians Besuch als Gottes Ankunft, IG 5, 2.50). Die Betonung der Anwe…