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(624 words)

Author(s): Runia, David T. (Leiden)
[German version] (αἵρεσις; haíresis). Important term in the historiography of ancient philosophy and medicine, later in the history of Christian dogma. Its original meaning is ‘selection’, either concretely (e.g. ‘election’ of an official), or rather abstractly (e.g. ‘decision’). In a first extension of meaning hairesis means ‘disposition’ or ‘inclination’ based on repeated decisions or choices; in a second extension of meaning hairesis means ‘line of thought’ or ‘school of thought’ and plays an important part in the historiography of ancient philosophy. Latin equivalents are d…


(933 words)

Author(s): Runia, David T. (Leiden) | Seibt, Klaus (Leonberg)
(Ἄρειος; Áreios) [German version] [1] Didymus Doxographer, possibly identical with the Stoic philosopher, 1st cent. BC Doxographer, possibly identical with the Stoic philosopher and confidant of Augustus of the 1st cent. BC,  Arius [3]. Several sources from later antiquity refer to the works of a Didymus or A. In his Praeparatio Evangelica, Eusebius quotes from ἐκ τῶν Διδύμῳ Περὶ τῶν ἀρεσκόντων Πλάτωνι’ συντεταγμένων (11,23,2-6) and also from several fragments concerning Stoic physics ἀπὸ τῶν Ἐπιτομῶν Ἀρείου’ Διδύμου (Book 15); Stobaeus names hi…


(1,109 words)

Author(s): Runia, David T. (Leiden)
[German version] The term doxography denotes the method which is frequently used by ancient writers in the realm of philosophy of recording the views or opinions (δόξαι, dóxai) of philosophers. It can also refer to texts or passages that contain such accounts. The term doxography is derived from the neologism doxographus, which the German scholar Hermann Diels (1848-1922) introduced and which literally means ‘writer of opinions’. In his work Doxographi Graeci (1879), Diels collected various ancient documents that summarize the philosophical doctrines of the ancien…


(5,673 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλων/ Phíl ōn). [German version] [I 1] Athenian politician Athenian from Acharnae who was exiled by the Oligarchic regime in 404 BC (Triakonta). During the civil war, he lived as a metoikos (resident without Attic citizenship) in Oropos awaiting the outcome of events. Following his return, when he applied to join the boulḗ he was accused of cowardice and other misdemeanours at a dokimasia investigation (Dokimasia) (Lys. 31; possibly 398 BC). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass, vol.1, 480f.  Th.Lenschau, A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 2526f. …


(1,578 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Runia, David T. (Leiden) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Ἀέτιος; Aétios). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Troezen Son of Anthas, mythical king of Troezen; his successors colonized Halicarnass and Myndus in Caria (Paus. 2,30,8 f.). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Doxographer of 1st cent. AD Doxographer of 1st cent. AD. Although historically elusive, A. played a central role in the doxographic tradition of antiquity, because he wrote the only detailed doxographic manual to have been handed down fairly complete ( Doxography). Large parts of the work can be quite accur…


(179 words)

Author(s): Runia, David T. (Leiden)
[German version] (Ἱππόβοτος; Hippóbotos). Hellenistic writer on the history of philosophy, place of activity unknown, cited 15 times in  Diogenes [17] Laertius, also in Clement of Alexandria, Porphyrius, Iamblichus, and the Suda, also named in POxy. 3656. The titles of two works are known: ‘On the Schools of Philosophy’ (Περὶ αἱρέσεων; Perì hairéseōn; Diog. Laert. 1,19; 2,88) and ‘Lists of Philosophers’ (Περὶ φιλοσόφων ἀναγραφή; Perì philosóphōn anagraphḗ, ibid. 1,41). In the first work H. states that there are nine ‘schools of philosophy’ ( Hairesis). The ‘Li…


(2,746 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Διοκλῆς; Dioklês). [German version] [1] Hero in Megara Hero in Megara. He supposedly died in battle, bravely covering a youth with his shield. At his grave boys competed for who could give the sweetest kiss. This agon, which took place every spring, was called Dioclea (Schol. Pind. Ol. 7,157; 13,156a; Theoc. 12,27-33 with Schol.: Aition). Perhaps the kisses represented farewell kisses repeated in the cult of the hero ([1]; to the contrary [2]). According to Schol. Aristoph. Ach.774 the agon was founded…


(937 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Runia, David T. (Leiden)
(Ἀντισθένης; Antisthénēs). [1] Student of Socrates [German version] A. Life and work Son of an Athenian of the same name and of a Thracian, pupil of Socrates,   c. 445 BC, died c. 365. According to some witnesses A. had been initially a pupil of Gorgias and taught rhetoric himself. As [8] has shown, these testimonia are not fully reliable. At the latest at the beginning of the 420s, A. became a follower of Socrates. Plato mentions him among those, who were present at the death of Socrates (Phd. 59b). In the first 10 to 15 yea…


(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …


(4,653 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Διογένης; Diogénēs). Known personalities: the Cynic D. [14] of Sinope, the philosophical historian D. [17] Laertius. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC Athenian (?) [1. 341,1], Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC, who is supposed to have demanded Corinth from the Achaeans (Plut. Arat. 34,1-4) [2. 168,63] at the rumour of the death of  Aratus [2]; after the death of  Demetrius [3] II in 229, he facilitated the liberation of Athens from Maced…


(838 words)

Author(s): Sharples, Robert (London) | Runia, David T. (Leiden)
(Σωτίων; Sōtíōn). [German version] [1] Several individuals of the same name It is uncertain to how many individuals, and in what combinations, the following reports of S. should be referred. (1)-(5) are linked by an interest in marvels and anecdotes [1.128, 2.167f.]; (5), (9) and (10) indicate a Peripatetic who may be distinct from (11); (4) and (10) indicate a date in the first half of the 1st century AD, and the other reports are consistent with this. (1) Author of a "little book" (Phot. Bibl. cod. 189,145b28-36), Diverse reports on marvellous rivers, springs and lakes.' The identificat…


(1,854 words)

Author(s): Piccione, Rosa Maria | Runia, David T. (Leiden)
Iohannes of Stobi in Macedonia (Ἰωάννης Στοβαῖος/ Iōánnēs Stobaîos), author of an Anthology dated to the 5th cent. AD. His name Iohannes makes a Christian background likely [11. 197]. [German version] I. Work: content and structure The collection of excerpts, the Anthology (Ἀνθολόγιον/ Anthológion; Suda s.v. Ἰωάννης Στοβεύς), contained, according to Photius, 'extracts, sayings and teachings in four books' (Phot. Bibl. cod. 167) - bk. 1: physics (and metaphysics), bk. 2,1-6: logic (and epistemology), bk. 2,7 ff. and bk. 3: ethics proper,…