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(1,397 words)

Author(s): Hock, Klaus | Sarot, Marcel | Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Dogmatics I. History of Religions As a theological category, damnation belongs primarily in the context of the history of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The etymology of the term itself connotes a local and a judicial dimension: the punishment of expulsion to a real or imaginary place as an exclusion from salvation, either limited or unlimited in time. There are several areas of tension in all three traditions: with respect to the core of the matter, whether damnation is an “automatic” consequence of human misbehavior, the result of Divine Judgment, or the fate of a person through predestination; concerning the local and temporal characterization, whether it is an eternal sojourn in hell, a limited purgatory, or (in Islam) temporary torment in the grave; with regard to those effected, whether there will be damnation in this life or beyond, individually or collectively; and, with reference to the status of those in damnation, whether their form of existence is conceived as spiritual or physical. All kinds of combinations of these parameters are conceivable, for example, eternal condemnation for unbelievers, but temporal condemnation for believing sinners (Sin, guilt, and forgiveness), as in some Isl…


(4,604 words)

Author(s): Bankier, David | Cohn-Sherbok, Dan | Sarot, Marcel | Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] I. History – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Dogmatics and Ethics – IV. Practical Theology – V. Treatment in Education I. History Hitler assumed power in Germany on Jan 30, 1933. From this date onwards, racism and Antisemitism/Anti-Judaism became central components of the Nazi system (National Socialism). During the first months the NSDAP instigated anti-Semitic riots and campaigns of terror that climaxed on the Apr 1, 1933, with a country-wide boycott on Jewish shops and professionals. In additi…


(8,171 words)

Author(s): Weßler, Heinz Werner | Barton, John | Klaiber, Walter | Sarot, Marcel | Sparn, Walter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In archaic cultures, the wellbeing of the community is determined by a fatal power that can be influenced by religious rituals but is ultimately incalculable. In the context of advanced early urb…


(284 words)

Author(s): Sarot, Marcel
[German Version] General. Over the centuries, the term sensation (Ger. Empfindung, Lat. passio corporalis, sensatio) has taken on many different meanings. As a result, it has the reputation of being extremely slippery and has fallen somewhat out of use. If we ignore its use as a synonym for feeling, it has two …


(2,967 words)

Author(s): Gilhus, Ingvild Sælid | Steinmann, Michael | Sarot, Marcel | Lange, Dietz
[German Version] I. Religion – II. Philosophy – III. History of Theology and Dogmatics – IV. Ethics I. Religion Talk of happiness refers to a deeper level of experience than enjoying oneself or feeling good. Happiness denotes success in life; the pursuit of happiness is a universal element in human life and thought. The hope of happiness may take ritual forms, especially in connection with rites of passage when a change of social position and status makes life uncertain, for instance at birth and weddings. The…


(2,828 words)

Author(s): Künne, Wolfgang | Sarot, Marcel | Huxel, Kirsten | Siemann, Jutta
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Fundamental Theology – IV. Ethics – V. Practical Theology I. Philosophy


(488 words)

Author(s): Hossenfelder, Malte | Sarot, Marcel
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Dogma I. Philosophy ἀπάθεια/ apatheia, “free…

Middle Knowledge

(321 words)

Author(s): Sarot, Marcel
[German Version] Middle knowledge is so called because it is located between two types of knowledge attributed to God in the Middle Ages. On the one hand, God possesses scientia simplicis intelligentiae (complete knowledge of God's own nature and the whole range of possibilities, also called scientia naturalis). On the other hand, God possesses scientia lib…