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(95 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Small river system [2. 473 f.] in the foothills of the central Alps, with the river Ollius (today: Mella) as its tributary, which has its own tributary called Garza. In Catull. 67,32 poetically called flavus (‘blond’). According to Verg. G. 4,277 f. it passes through sheep pastures near Brixia (Serv. Georg. ad l.c.). In Geographus Ravennas 4,36 it is wrongly called a tributary of the Padus. Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography 1 Nissen 2, 196 2 P. Tozzi, L'antico corso del fiumo Garza e Catullo carmina 67, 32-3, in: RIL 107, 1973, 473-498.


(288 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) | Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] [1] Roman fort in Germania Inferior Roman fort in Germania Inferior (Germani [1] II.) on the road from Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) to Confluentes [1] (Koblenz), modern Remagen. At least from the Claudian era a wood and earth fort existed; from the Flavian era, a stone fort stood in the same place. Numerous stone inscriptions are extant. R. was a beneficiarii station from the 2nd half of the 2nd to the middle of the 3rd cents. AD. A hoard of coins from AD 270/280 (274/5?) has been connected with the occupation of …


(65 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] River rising in the Alpes Maritimae (Plin. HN 3,118) and flowing from the right-hand side into the Padus (modern Po) near Valentia and Forum Fulvi, modern Tanaro. Hasta [4], Alba Pompeia, Pollentia [1] and Augusta [1] Bagiennorum are on its course. Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography A. Costanzo, La romanizzazione nel bacino idrografico padano, 1975, 98  E. Panero, La città romana in Piemonte, 2000, 25.


(143 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] [1] City of the Hirpini City of the Hirpini in the mountains of Samnium, destroyed by the Romans in 298 BC. It was to the territory of T. that in 180 BC Ligurian Apuani were deported (Liv. 40,38,3; 41,4; Plin. HN 3, 105; Baebius [I 12]). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography D. Marcotte, Lucaniae, in: Latomus 44, 1985, 721-742  J. Patterson, Sanniti, 1988, 168-170  G. De Benedittis, Fagifulae, 1997, 17-22, 65-74. [German version] [2] Capital of the Taurini This item can be found on the following maps: Punic Wars Probably the capital of the Taurini (App. Hann. 5…

Macri campi

(105 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Area in the Apennines 7 km west of Mutina in the Val di Montirone near modern Magreta (cf. the ancient place name!). A cattle market as early as pre-Roman times. The Roman garrison (from 176: Liv. 41,18,5ff.) developed into an important trading centre (Varro, Rust. 2, pr. 6; Columella 7,2,3; Str. 5,1,11: Μακροὶ Κάμποι/ Makroì Kámpoi) that was abandoned in the mid 1st cent. AD [1]. Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography 1 E. Gabba, Mercati e fiere nell'Italia romana in: Studi Classici e Orientali 25, 1975, 141-163. Nissen 2, 265 A. Sabatini, I Campi Macri, in: Rivista st…


(67 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Name of two rivers within the problematic hydrographic network of the central course of the Veneto. According to Tab. Peut. 4,4 and 4,5, the M. maior is the modern Brenta, which flows into the Adriatic, and the M. minor is the modern Bacchiglione, which bifurcated at Patavium (Plin. HN 3,121), where it formed a harbour (Liv. 10,2,6). Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography Nissen 2, 219.


(73 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Main settlement of the Celtic-Ligurian Anares (Pol. 2,34) in the south of Ticinum, modern Casteggio. Traffic node. In 222 BC the Romans defeated the Gauls near C. (Pol. 2,69; Plut. Marcellus 6; topic of the praetexta of same name by Naevius [1. 30f.]). Relay point on the via Postumia, vicus of Placentia (CIL V 7357). Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography 1 R. Chevallier, La romanisation de la Celtique du Pô, 1979. M. Baratta, C., 1931.


(74 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] (modern Lambro). Left-bank tributary of the Padus (Po), rises in the mountains at the lacus Larius, forms the lacus Eupilis (Plin. HN 3,131; modern Lago di Pusiano), flows through the Brianza and joins the Padus east of Mediolanum. Name pre-Roman, possibly Mediterranean (* lambrusca, ‘wild grapevine’) or Celtic (* Ambrones). Sources: Plin. HN 16,20; Sid. Apoll. Epist. 1; 5; Tab. Peut. 4,2 (river and station). Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography Nissen, vol. 2, 180.

Lacus Verban(n)us

(59 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] A lake formed by the Ticinus in the Alpine foothills, modern Lago Verbano or Lago Maggiore (Pol. 34,10,21 = Str. 4,6,12; Plin. HN 2,224; 3,131; 9,69); Verg. G. 2,159 possibly hints at the lacus Verban(n)us. Vicus Sebuinus, later called Angleria (modern Angera), is on the eastern shore. Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography Nissen, vol. 1, 181.

Silva Litana

(62 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Forest on the right bank of the Padus (modern river Po) on the Via Aemilia. The praetor L. Postumius [I 5] Albinus was ambushed by the Boii there in 216 BC (Liv. 23,24,7; Frontin. Str. 1,6,4; Zon. 9,3). The consul L. Valerius Flaccus avenged him there in 195 BC (Liv. 34,22,1; 42,2). Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography Nissen 2, 256.


(154 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] General term for the area to the north of the Padus (modern Po; cf. Cic. Off. 3,22,88; Catull. 39,13: Transpadanus; [1. 274; 2. 149; 3. 28 f.; 4. 7 f.]), as an adjective connected only with Italia (Tac. Hist. 2,32; CIL X 3870), never with Gallia. Augustus' regional reform recognises a regio XI T. bounded in the east by the Ollius ( Regio with map; Plin. HN 3,123; Tac. Hist. 1,70; Plin. Ep. 6,6). Towards the end of the 3rd cent. AD, T. was understood to be the whole of the Padus plain to the south of the Alpes; divided in the 4th cent. into Aemilia and Liguria [5. 236 f.; 6. …


(163 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Villanova Culture | Raeti, Raetia Chief town of a Ligurian tribe of the Golasecca culture, inhabited since the 12th cent. BC (necropolis of the Ca' Morta), modern Como. Strong influence of the Celtic Insubres [1. 207f.] of the Padana. Control of the lacus Larius and one of the most important passes across the Alps. Reached by the Romans in 196 BC (Liv. 33,36f.), C. became a ‘fictive’ Roman colonia in 89 (based on the lex Pompeia: Str. 5,1,6). Expanded by one of the Scipiones (83 or 77 BC) and refounded by Caesar as N…

Laus Pompeia

(100 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Transpadanian city south-east of Mediolanum (Milan), between the Lambrus and Addua rivers, modern Lodi Vecchio [1]. Probably of Gallic origin ( Boii, Plin. HN 3,124), named after Cn. Pompeius Strabo ( cos. in 89 BC). Municipium, tribus Pupinia (Ascon. in Cic. Pis. 1). Few archaeological remains; aerial photographs clarify the ancient urban structure and location as an important road junction. Nearby probably a sanctuary of Hercules. Ambrosius installed Bassianus as the first bishop of L.P. Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography 1 M. Harari, P. Tozzi, s.v. Lodi Ve…


(90 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Town of the Celtic-Ligurian Laevi to the west of the Ticinus (Plin. HN 3,124; Ptol. 3,1,33: Celtic; Cato, HRR fr. 40: Ligurian), present-day Novara. In the period of the Roman Empire it was a flourishing town on the road from Mediolan(i)um [1] to the West (It. Ant. 344,5). Its territory extended into the valleys of the Alps. Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography R. Scuderi, Per la storia socioeconomica di N., in: Bollettino storico-bibliografico subalpino 85,1, 1987, 247-297.


(47 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Celto-Ligurian people on the left bank of the Padus (Po), who, along with others (Ligurian Salluvii: Liv. 5,35,2, or Sallii: Plin. HN 3,124), founded Vercellae (Pol. 2,17,4; Plin. HN 4,5; Ptol. 3,1,36; Liv. 21,38,7; 33,37,6: Libui). Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography Nissen, vol. 2, 174.


(96 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Left-bank tributary of the Padus (Plin. HN 3,118; Geogr. Rav. 4,36), today the Oglio. It rises on the southern slopes of the Ortler Group, flowing through the valley of the Camunni (today the Val Camonica), forming the Lacus Sebin(n)us (Lago d'Iseo) and flows out into the Padus after a course of c. 280 km south west of Mantua. It formed the frontier between the regiones X and XI. O. was also occasionally a personal name (masc.; fem. form Ollia; cf. CIL III 3893; CIL V 6445). Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography Nissen 2, 196.


(159 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Main settlement of the Volsci; its exact location to the north of the Monti Lepini is not known (Liv. 4,61,5; 6,31,5). An ongoing obstacle for the Romans [1. 649; 2. 100] (Liv. 3,10,8; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,4), E. even stood up to them (at the end of the 5th cent. BC) after the fall of  Antium [3. 434], which was allied to E. (Liv. 4,59,1; Diod. Sic. 14,16,5). The Ecetrani, de facto displaced by the Privernati, are still found in Liv. 6,31 for 378 BC; thereafter, their traces vanish. The name of the town, which particularly in its Greek form Ἐχέτρα ( Echétra), similar to Cimetra (…


(201 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Name given to a people from the eastern, Venetian part of the Po plain who withdrew to the mountainous interior of the country when the  Veneti came from the east (cf. the Paphlagonian immigrants in Liv. 1,1,2f.). There they mixed with the Raeti and later were frequently confused with them [1. 486f.; 3. 101f.]. Cato (HRR fr. 41) menti ons 34 oppida of the E., among these the  Camunni, Trumplini and Stoeni (uncertain), while for others the Camunni were Raeti (Str. 4,6,8) and the Stoeni were Ligures (Acta Triumphalia for the year 637; Str. …


(507 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Natural catastrophes | Regio, regiones | Batavian Revolt (Μο[υ]τίνη/ Mo[u]tίnē), modern Modena. City on the northern slope of the Appenninus between the two rivers Secia (modern Secchia) and Scultenna (modern Panaro) that both flow into the lower course of the Padus (modern Po) from the right, at a strategically important position, where three passes from the south up over the mountain range meet the road from Ariminum along the southern edge of the Po valley (from 187 BC, the via Aemili…


(144 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Inhabitants of the upper Oglio valley (Val Camonica), described by some sources as Raeti (Str. 4,6,7) or rather Euganei (Plin. HN 3,134) in the central Alps. A continuity in culture of more than 1000 years is evident in numerous rock paintings, ranging from phases I-III (Neolithic to Bronze Age) to phase IV (from the 8th cent.) and IV 4 (3rd to 1st cents. BC), socio-sacral expressions by hunter and warrior tribes [1. 131ff.]. Listed among the gentes Alpinae devictae, who were defeated by Augustus in 16 BC (CIL V 7817), they were possibly put under the admin…
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