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(471 words)

Author(s): Schnelle, Udo (Halle/Saale)
[German version] The term εὐαγγέλιον ( euangélion) has been attested since Homer (Od. 14,52f.; 166f.), where it is the messenger's reward for good news. In Plut. Demetrius 17; Philostr. VA 5,8, euangelion stands for news of victory, in Plut. Sertorius 11,8 euangelion is the message itself, and euangelion could also mean joyful political and private messages (Cic. Att. 2,3,1). In the  imperial cult euangelion had a religious meaning. In the inscription of Priene (OGIS II 458) both the announcement of the blessings coming with the emperor and the joyful messa…


(428 words)

Author(s): Schnelle, Udo (Halle/Saale)
[English version] Der Begriff εὐαγγέλιον ist seit Homer (Od. 14,52f.; 166f.) bezeugt, wo er den Botenlohn für eine gute Nachricht bezeichnet. Für eine Siegesbotschaft steht e. bei Plut. Demetrius 17; Philostr. Ap. 5,8; bei Plut. Sertorius 11,8 heißt e. die Botschaft selbst; zudem können mit e. auch polit. und private Freudenbotschaften bezeichnet werden (Cic. Att. 2,3,1). Eine rel. Bed. hat e. im Kaiserkult. In der Inschr. von Priene (OGIS II 458) werden sowohl die Ankündigungen des mit dem Kaiser heraufziehenden Heils als auch die Freudenbotschaften des Heilsereignisses euangélia…


(9,795 words)

Author(s): Fahlbusch, Erwin | Schnelle, Udo | Wainwright, Geoffrey | Leonard, Bill J. | Grethlein, Christian | Et al.
Overview In Christianity, baptism—either by plunging in water or by sprinkling with it—represents the first act of incorporation “into Christ” and into the fellowship of the church. Further acts of incorporation are confirmation (Initiation Rites 2) and the Eucharist. Other religious societies have similar rites (Initiation Rites 1). Jewish proselyte baptism incorporates the baptized not only into the religious fellowship but also into God’s covenant people. This matter is relevant in the dialogu…


(2,676 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas | Schnelle, Udo | Marquardt, Manfred
[German Version] I. Old Testament Sanctification, the “setting apart” of spaces, times, objects, and persons to make them sacred (cf. Lat. sacer) is represented in the Old Testament by the verb קדשׁ/ qdš piel and niphal, its antonyms חלל/ ḥll I piel and חל/ ḥl, and the antithesis “clean–unclean” טהר–טמא/ ṭhr–ṭmʾ (with reference to holiness: Lev 11:43ff.; 16:19; cf. Deut 14:3ff.; purity and impuraty). Since YHWH represents holiness per se (Isa 5:16, etc.), sanctification means translating the object in question into the immediate divine realm (cf. the regulati…

Synoptic Problem

(3,774 words)

Author(s): Schnelle, Udo
[German Version] I. Definition The Synoptic problem has to do with the literary relationship between the Synoptic Gospels, to clarify whether and how Matthew, Mark, and Luke are literarily dependent on each other. The starting point is the observation that the first three Gospels largely share the same language and sequence of episodes while also differing on many points. The Synoptic problem is thus one aspect of literary criticism and source criticism (Literary criticism and the Bible) and a pheno…


(23,143 words)

Author(s): Schnelle, Udo | Fischer, Georg | Becker, Hans-Jürgen | Fischer Georg | Müller, Hans-Peter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Dogmatics – V. Practical Theology – VI. Missiology – VII. Judaism – VIII. Cultural History I.  Concept “Bible” is the predominant designation in church, theology, and society for the collection of OT and NT scriptures recognized by the church. The word “Bible” and its close equivalents in other European languages derive from the middle Latin “biblia.” This Latin feminine derives from the Greek neuter plural τὰ βιβλία/ tá biblía. Grammatically, the sg. βιβλίον/ biblíon is a diminu¶ tive form of ἡ βίβλος/ hē b…


(13,995 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Cancik, Hubert | Seidl, Theodor | Schnelle, Udo | Bienert, Wolfgang A. | Et al.
[German Version] (Biblical Scholarship, Hermeneutics, Interpretation) I. Religious Studies – II. History of Religions – III. Greco Roman Antiquity – IV. Bible – V. Church History – VI. Practical Theology – VII. Biblical Scenes in Art – VIII. Judaism – IX. Islam I. Religious Studies Exegesis (for etymology see III below) is the explanation, interpretation, or analysis of sacred or otherwise religiously central documents by experts; it enables and encourages the access of a …