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(5,613 words)

Author(s): Soucek, Priscilla P. | Landau, J. M. | Naef, S.
(a.), nom verbal de la forme II du verbe ṣawwara «former, fabriquer, puis dépeindre, représenter, illustrer». C’est le principal terme utilisé en arabe pour désigner d’une part les arts figuratifs comprenant la peinture, le dessin, les croquis, la gravure et la photographie (à ce propos, voir en 2. ci-dessous) et d’autre part le procédé de leur élaboration. Il est souvent opposé à timt̲h̲āl (sculpture) et synonyme de ṣūra et du plus rare taṣwīra ou de leurs formes respectives au pluriel, ṣuwar et taṣāwīr. Naḳs̲h̲ (A.) et nigār ¶ (P.) sont d’autres synonymes de taṣwīr, largement utilisés…


(5,289 words)

Author(s): Soucek, Priscilla P. | Landau, L. M. | Naef, Silvia
(a.), verbal noun from the form II verb ṣawwara “to form, fashion”, then “depict, represent, illustrate”. It is the principal term used in Arabic for both the representational arts including painting, drawing, sketching, engraving and photography (on which see 2. below) and the process of their creation. It is often contrasted to timt̲h̲āl (sculpture) and synonymous with ṣūra and the rarer taṣwīra or their respective plural forms ṣuwar and taṣāwīr . Other synonyms of taṣwīr widely used in Persian texts are naḳs̲h̲ (A.) and nigār (P.). Although in the usage…


(46,620 words)

Author(s): Yarshater, Ehsan | Khorramshahi, Bahaʾ-al-Din | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Correale, D. Meneghini | Meisami, Julie Scott | Et al.
Celebrated Persian lyric poet (ca. 715-792/1315-1390).A version of this article is available in printVolume XI, Fascicle 5, pp. 461-507 HAFEZ (Ḥāfeẓ), ŠAMS-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD of Shiraz (ca. 715-792/1315-1390), celebrated Persian lyric poet.HAFEZ i. AN OVERVIEWHafez is the most popular of Persian poets. If a book of poetry is to be found in a Persian home, it is likely to be the Divān (collected poems) of Hafez. Many of his lines have become proverbial sayings, and there are few who cannot recite some of his lyrics, partially or totally, by heart. His Divān is widely used in bibliomancy ( fāl; …
Date: 2021-04-28

Material Culture and the Qurʾān

(21,133 words)

Author(s): Soucek, Priscilla P.
In view of the all-encompassing significance of the Qurʾān in the faith (q.v.) of the Muslim community it is to be expected that its influence would be manifested in many spheres of life (see everyday life, qurʾān in ). The holy book has had an impact not only through its cultic role but also as a venerated object and through its importance to other cultural practices. The Qurʾān's effect on material culture is an extension of the various functions it plays in devotional life and although some of these must have been prominent since…