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Bābā Beg

(76 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Spuler, B.
, an Özbek chief of the family of the Keneges, who was till 1870 prince of S̲h̲ahrisabz. This town having been conquered by the Russians, he fled with a small body of those faithful to him. Finally he was seized in Ferg̲h̲ānā and obliged to reside at Tas̲h̲kent. In 1875 he entered Russian military service and took part in the campaign against Ḵh̲oḳand. He died about 1898 at Tas̲h̲kent. (W. Barthold [B. Spuler])

Ḳi̊ri̊m

(7,860 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, a peninsula jutting out into the Black Sea south of the Ukraine (Russian Kri̊m; English Crimea; French Crimée; German Krim; with an area of 25,500 km2), connected with the mainland by the isthmus ca. 8 km. wide of Perekop (in Turkish Or Ḳapi̊), and ending to the east in the peninsula of Kerč [ q.v.]. The northern and central parts are flat; to the south lies a mountainous area consisting of three ranges, the most southern of which, Mt. Yayla (1,545 m high), falls down steeply to the coastal strip. The climate is relatively mild and on the south-ea…

Ḳaraḳorum

(851 words)

Author(s): Visser, Ph.C. | Spuler, B.
( ḳaraḳoram ), a chain of mountains in the centre of Asia lying north of and almost parallel to the Himalayas. The range extends westwards as far as 73° long.; it has not yet been definitely ascertained how far it runs eastwards. At one time the eastern limit was thought to be the pass of the Ḳaraḳorum, the plateau of Depsong and the upper part of the S̲h̲ayok, but, according to the views of several famous geographers, the range runs much farther into Tibet, and the Tang-la (to the north of upper Saluën) should, they think, be regarded ¶ as a part of the Ḳaraḳorum. This idea was first put fo…

Bālyōs

(405 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, Bālyoz (originally Baylōs), the Turkish name for the Venetian ambassador to the Sublime Porte—in Italian, bailo (Venetian ambassadors at Byzantium had borne this title since 1082; other baili were at Tyre and Lajazzo/Payas near Alexandretta). The Venetians, immediately after the conquest of Constantinople, sent off as bailo Bartolommeo Marcello, who on 18 April 1454 made with the Porte a commercial treaty which renewed the agreement already existing with the Ottomans since 1408. Under this new treaty Venice had the ri…

Ču

(1,302 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, a river in Central Asia, 1090 km. long, but not navigable because of its strong current. It is now known as S̲h̲u (Barthold, Vorl . 80) by the Kirgiz who live there (and it probably had this name when the Turks lived there in the Middle Ages); Chinese: Su-yeh or Sui-s̲h̲e . modern Chinese: Čʿuci (for the problem of the indication of Ču = Chinese ‘pearl’ with the ‘Pearl River’ [Yinčü Ögüz] in the Ork̲h̲on Inscriptions, cf. the article Si̊r Daryā ). The river Ču has its source in Terskei Alaltau, and then flows to the north-east until 6 km. from the western end of the Issik Kul [ q.v.], known as Ḳočḳar …

Baikal

(267 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, in eastern Turkish (by iolk-etymology) Bai kül , ‘the rich lake’; in Mongolian Datai nor, ‘the ocean lake’; the deepest lake (1741 m.), and the largest mountain lake in the world, between 51° 29′ and 55° 46′ north, and 103° 44′ and 110° 40′ east, surrounded by high mountain ranges, 635 km. long, and varying from 15 to 79 km wide, with an area of 31,500 sq. km. Flowing into it are the Selenga, the Barguzin and the upper An…

D̲j̲adīd

(603 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(Arabic ‘new’, ‘modern’; Turkish pronunciation d̲j̲edīd ), followers of the uṣūl-i d̲j̲edīd ( e), the ‘new methods’, among the Muslims of Russia. The movement arose in about 1880 among the Kazan [ q.v.] Tatars, who provided it with its first leaders; from there it spread to other Turkish peoples in Russia. The D̲j̲edīds were against ‘religious and cultural retrogression’; they pressed, above all, for modern teaching methods in the schools, for the cultural unification of all Turkish peoples living under Russian domination, but…

Consul

(868 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(Arab. Ḳunşul ; Pers. Ḳunṣūl ; Turk. Konsolos ), consuls as representatives of the interests of foreign states in Islamic countries (and similarly in Byzantium). The institution of the consul was formed in the 12th and 13th centuries in the Italian merchant republics. The Genoese put their possessions in the Crimea (see Ki̊ri̊m ); since 1266), nominally subject to the Ḵh̲ān of the Golden Horde, in the charge of a consul (B. Spuler: Die Goldene Horde , Leipzig 1943, 392-8, with further bibl.; E. S. Zevakin and N. A. Penčko: Očerki po istorii genuėzskik̲h̲ koloniy ..., ( ‘Sketches on the History…

Hazārasp

(282 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(Persian: “a thousand horses”), a town in K̲h̲wārizm, near the left bank of the Oxus [see āmū daryā ] at the outlet of a navigable canal, a day’s journey from K̲h̲īwa and 10 farsak̲h̲ from Gurgand̲j̲ (Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, Nuzha , 179 ff.). The town had wooden gates and was surrounded by a moat (Muḳaddasī, 289), which almost entirely enclosed it, so that in 616/1219 there was only one entrance. Hazārasp was a strong fortress, and at the same time an important trading centre with large bazaars, lying on the trade route from Āmul on the Oxus to K̲h̲wārizm (Yāḳūt, iv, 471 = Beirut 1957, v, 404).…

Kas̲h̲

(667 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Spuler, B.
, the modern s̲h̲ahr-i sabz (“green town”) on account of the fertility of its surroundings), a town in Özbekistān on what was once the great trade route between Samarḳand and Balk̲h̲. According to Chinese authorities, Kas̲h̲ (Chinese transcription Kʾia-s̲h̲a or Kié-s̲h̲uang-na, also Kʾius̲h̲a, as a town Ki-s̲h̲e) was founded at the beginning of the seventh century A.D.; cf. J. Marquart, Chronologie der alttürkischen Inschriften , Leipzig 1898, 57; Ērānšahr etc., Berlin 1901, 304; E. Chavannes, Documents sur les Toukiue ( Turcs ) occidentaux , St. Petersbu…

Aymak

(56 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, Mongol and Eastern Turkish word meaning "tribe" and "group of tribes" (=Turkish il); in Modern Mongolian, "province", in the USSR, " rayon ". In Afg̲h̲ānistān the four nomadic tribes of partly nomad origin: Ḏj̲ams̲h̲īdī, Hazāra, Fīrūzkūhī and Taymanī, are called the "Four Aymaḳs" (Čār, or Čahār. Aymaḳ) [see čahār aymak ]. (B. Spuler) ¶

G̲h̲aznawids

(4,734 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B. | Sourdel-Thomine, J.
is the name given to the dynasty of Turkish origin which was founded by Sebüktigin, a General and Governor of the Sāmānids [ q.v.]. With G̲h̲azna [ q.v.] for long its capital, the dynasty lasted for more than 200 years, from 367/977-8 to 583/1187, in eastern Īrān and what is now Afg̲h̲ānistān, and finally only in parts of the Pand̲j̲āb (with Lahāwur/Lahore as centre). For a long time its rulers held the official title of Amīr, ¶ although historians call them Sulṭān from the start; on coins, Ibrāhīm (no. XII below) was the first to bear this title. From the time when Alptigin established hims…

Gūrk̲h̲ān

(262 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, the title borne by the (non-Muslim) rulers of Ḳarak̲h̲itāy [ q.v.] (Chinese Hsi Liao = ¶ Western Liao) who governed central Asia between 522-5/1128-31 and 608/1212 (or, with Güčlük, till 615/1218). The first ruler was Yeh-lü Ta-s̲h̲ih (d. 537/1143), a prince from the north Chinese dynasty of Liao, of the Kʿi-tan (Ḵh̲itāy) people. He overthrew the regime of the Ḳarak̲h̲ānids [ q.v.] or Ilig-k̲h̲āns and in 535/1141 defeated the Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultan Sand̲j̲ar [ q.v.] decisively in the Ḳaṭwān plain, north of Samarḳand: the victory of a non-Muslim ruler from the East over …

Aḳ Ṣu

(170 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(T.), “white water”, (1) technical term for the original bed of a river (also aḳ daryā ), from which a canal ( ḳara ṣu or ḳara daryā ) is derived; (2) name of several rivers in Turkish-speaking countries; they are sometimes better known under other names. The following are some of the rivers that bear in Turkish the name of Aḳ Ṣu: (i) one of the source rivers of the Amū Daryā [ q.v.], also called Murg̲h̲āb [ q.v.] or the “River of Kūlāb”; (ii) the “southern” Bug (in Ukrainian: Boh) in the Ukraine (so regularly in the Ottoman historians), which forms at its issue into the …

Ḳaratigin

(1,078 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Spuler, B.
, a district on both sides of the middle course of the Wak̲h̲s̲h̲ or Surk̲h̲āb (Turk. Ḳi̊zi̊l Ṣū), one of the rivers which form the Āmū Daryā, called Rās̲h̲t by the Arab geographers (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih 34, 211 f.; Ibn Rusta, 92 f., 290; Yaʿḳūbī, Buldān , 260). The principal place (or “the fortress”, al-Ḳalʿa , al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, 340) of Rās̲h̲t corresponded as regards its situation perfectly with the modern Garm or Harm, the only town in Ḳaratigin. Rās̲h̲t then formed one of the frontier lands of Islām and was ¶ defended on the east against the inroads of the Turks by a wall built by Faḍl b. Barmak [ q…

Gīlān

(1,424 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, a historic region around the delta of the river Safīd-rūd [ q.v.], was the homeland of the Gēl people (Gelae, Γῆλαι; = Καδούϭιοι) in antiquity. The present Persian inhabitants, who speak a special dialect (cf. G. Melgunoff, Essai sur les dialectes ... du Ghîlân ..., in ZDMG, xvii (1868), 195-224, and the article iran: Languages) bear the name Gīlak (at an earlier period also Gīl). The derivation of the name from gil “clay”, in allusion to the marshes of the region, is a piece of folk etymology. In the middle ages Gīlān first extended as far as the Čālūs in the south east; later i…

Čapar

(383 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
( Čäpär ), the eldest son of Ḳaidū [ q.v.] and great grandson of the Mongol Great Ḵh̲an Ögedey (Uk/gatāy: regn . 1229-41), after his father’s death in 700/1301 and his own succession to the throne on the Imil in the spring of 702/1303 (Ḏj̲amāl Ḳars̲h̲ī in W. Barthold, Turkestan . Russian ed. i, 1900, 138), he fought in the beginning continually against the claims of Ḳubilay’s successors upon the Great Ḵh̲anate, considering it his own prerogative as one of Ögedey’s descendants, who were the central "protectors of the genuin…

Dābūya

(333 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
( Dābōē ), the founder of the Dābūyid dynasty in Gīlān [ q.v.]. The tribe claimed to be of Sāsānid extraction through Dābūya’s father, Gīl Gāwbāra. Their residence was the town of Fūman [ q.v.]. The dynasty clung to Zoroastrianism for a long time, and repeatedly defended the land against the Arabs, until the last ruler, K̲h̲ūrs̲h̲īd̲h̲ II (758/60, 141 or 142 A.H.) had to flee before the superior force of the ʿAbbāsids, and put an end to his own life in Daylam (Ṭabarī, iii, 139 f.). One of his daughters, whose name is unknown, became the wife of the Caliph al-Manṣūr. The names of the members of t…

Astrak̲h̲ān

(944 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, city and district. The city lies on the left bank of the Volga, some sixty miles from the point where it runs into the Caspian Sea, 46° 21′ N, 48° 2′ E, 20.7 m. below normal sea level, 7.6 m. above the level of the Caspian Sea. Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, ii, 410-2, who passed through here in 1333, mentions for the first time a settlement supposed to have been founded by a Mecca pilgrim, whose religious reputation brought the district exemption from taxes; this was supposed to explain its name, viz. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Tark̲h̲ān ( tark̲h̲ān means among the Mongols in later times a man e…

Andid̲j̲ān

(526 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
town in Farghāna, 40 43° north, 72 25° east, on the left of the upper Jaxartes (Si̊r Daryā). In the 4th/10th century the town—then known as Anduk(g)ān—was under the rule of the Ḳarluḳs and later under their Ḳarak̲h̲ānid rulers; in the 11th century it was under the Sald̲j̲ūḳs (Yāḳūt, Cairo ed., i, 347). In the 12th century the town is mentioned as the centre of Farg̲h̲āna (cf. Zap. Imp. Russk. geogr . ob-va xxix, 72). Apparently the town suffered greatly from the Mongol raids and had to be rebuilt towards the end of the 13th century under the Čag̲h̲atay Ḵh̲āns Kaydū a…
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