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Elea

(99 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἐλέα; Eléa). [German version] [1] Coastal town in Epirus Coastal town in Epirus at the mouth of the Acheron near modern Veliani, main settlement of the Eleatis region (wrongly Elaia/Elaiatis in Thuc. 1,46,4) in Thesprotia. Origin of the pólis before 350 BC, first minting between 360 and 335 BC. Of the 10-ha. town mainly the 1.5-km-long walls are preserved. Documents: Scyl. 30; Str. 7,7,5. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Archaeological Reports 41, 1994/5, 26 P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976 S. I. Dakaris, Thesprotia, 1972 P. R. Franke, Die ant. Mz. von Epirus, 1961, 300-307. …

Evenus

(688 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Εὔηνος, Εύηνός; Eúēnos, Euēnós) [1] of Paros [German version] A. Personal Data Eratosthenes distinguishes between two elegiac poets from Paros, both named E. (Harpocr. s.v. Εὔηνος 139,15 Dindorf), others maintain that there had only been one [1]. Plato mentions an E. of Paros, a poet and ‘philosopher’ (Pl. Phd. 60d; 61b), a teacher of political rhetoric around 400 BC (Pl. Ap. 20a-b), who had ‘discovered’ a number of tropes (Pl. Phdr. 267a). Both his language and the subject matter of some of the extant fra…

Nicopolis

(1,739 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νικόπολις; Nikópolis). [German version] [1] Town on the upper Nestus river This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Town on the upper Nestus river on the road from Philippopolis to the Aegean coast (Ptol. 3,11,13: Ν. ἡ περὶ Νέσσον; 8,11,7; Hierocles, Synekdemos 636,5), near modern Goce Delčev (Bulgaria), founded in AD 106 by Traianus. From the 2nd to 4th cents. AD, N. reached a high economic and cultural level (minting from Commodus to Caracalla: HN 287; thermal baths, peristyle buildings, sculpt…

Acroceraunia

(106 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (τὰ Ἀκροκεραύνια; tá Akrokeraúnia). Mountain range on the coast of  Epirus (modern Karaburun in Albania), as a continuation of the Ceraunian Mountains on the territory of the  Chaones, border to Illyria (Str. 7,7,5; Plin. HN 3,97,1; 145,2), also a peninsula with a length of 16 km and a breadth of 3-5 km, and up to 800 m in height, protecting the Gulf of Aulon (Vlores) and the port of  Oricus. Because of its inhospitality and frequent storms metonymous for ‘dangerous places’ (Ov. Rem. am. 739; cf. ThLL 1, 42). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1…

Agrinium

(95 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania (Ἀγρίνιον; Agrínion). Originally an Acarnanian town, in 314 BC under Cassander   synoikismos of the  Derieis in A., then, after capture by the  Aetolians (Diod. Sic. 19,67 f.), it became a member of the Aetolian koinon (several strategoi hailed from A.). Remains of the town (walls, stoa, houses) localized near Megali Chora, 3 km north-west of the modern A. (regional museum).  Acarnania;  Strategos Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography C. Antonetti, Les Étoliens, 1990, 23…

Dyrrhachium

(529 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Wine | | Coloniae | Commerce | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Delian League | Balkans, languages (Δυρράχιον; Dyrr[h]áchion, Dyrrhachium). [German version] I. Graeco-Roman period Harbour town on the Illyrian coast, the modern Durrës in Albania; founded on a peninsula by Corinth and Corcyra, probably in 626/625 BC, as the colony of Epidamnus (Eus. Chronicon 88f.; Thuc. 1,24-26; Scymn. 435-439). The name D. (c…

Lyncon montes

(64 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Mountain massif in the Epirote part of the Pindus, up to 2,249 m high, whose northern foothills are directed towards Macedonia and whose southern ones towards Thessaly source area of the Aous (modern Viotsa). According to Liv. 32,13,2f., thickly wooded with wide tablelands and perennial springs. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 280f. Philippson/Kirsten 2, 69-76.

Astacus

(425 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἀστακός; Astakós, ‘lobster town’). [German version] [1] Town on the eastern end of the Gulf of A. or of  Nicomedia This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Delian League Town on the eastern end of the Gulf of A. or of  Nicomedia, in an unhealthy region; its exact location is unknown. Its foundation in 712/11 BC was initiated by  Megara (Memnon, FGrH 434 F 12; Str. 12,4,2), and it was presumably a member of the  Delian League from 478/7 BC[1]; in 435/4 BC, it was colonized by Athens. In about 405 BC, under D…

Thyamis

(83 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Θύαμις; Thýamis). River, today also T. (formerly Kalamas), and promontory, modern Akra Kalamas, in Epirus. The T. flows in two branches into the Ionios Kolpos opposite Corcyra [1] and forms the border between Thesprotia (Thesproti) in the south and Cestrine in the north (Thuc. 1,46,4; Str. 7,7,5; Plin.  HN 4,4). Pomponius [I 5] Atticus had an estate on the T.  (Cic. Att. 7,2,3; Cic. Leg. 2,7). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 186 f.; 669 f.  Philippson/Kirsten 2, 38 f.; 87-90; 93-99.

Campylus

(35 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Καμπύλος; Kampýlos). One of the tributaries of the Achelous in Aetolia (Diod. Sic. 19,67,3); its location cannot be determined more closely. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography H. v. Geisau, s.v. K., RE 10, 1844.

Acheron

(499 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀχέρων; Achérōn). [German version] [1] River in Epirus River in  Epirus, rising from the slopes of Tomarus [2. 166] (in the 4th cent. BC territory of the Molossi: Liv. 8,24,2), flows through the narrow gorges of Thesprotia (Thuc. 1,46,3); when it entered the plain its sluggish meanders formed in antiquity the swamp-like lake Ἀχερουσία λίμνη ( Acherousía límnē, today dried up). According to Str. 7,7,5 (as in Thuc. 1,46,3 based on Hecataeus [2. 443-469, 478]), it entered the sea near the γλυκὺς λιμήν ( glykỳs limḗn ‘Sweet-water harbour’, a station on the Roman   cursus publicus

Neritum

(148 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Νήριτον; Nḗriton). Originally probably a poetic designation for ‘mountain forest’ [1. 185], the name of a forested mountain on Ithaca (Hom. Od. 9,22; 13,351). In the Homeric Catalogue of Ships (Hom. Il. 2,632) the significance is unclear: N. can be understood either as a mountain [2. 591-596] or as an island or city next to Ithaca (cf. Verg. Aen. 3,271; Ov. Met. 13,712; Mela 2,110). Other ancient authors identify N. with the town of Nericus, which they localised on Leucas (cf. Plin. HN 4,5). Hence in ancient authors and in the MSS the forms Nericus and Neritus are mixed u…

Lissa

(169 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Island off the Dalmatian coast Island off the Dalmatian coast opposite Iader (Plin. HN 3,152), modern Ugljan. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 206, 208f. [German version] [2] Town in Lycia This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Λίσσα; Líssa). Town attested epigraphically on the south-west coast of Lycia in Asia Minor. Not identical with the place where the inscriptions [3; 6] were found, a Hellenistic tower farmstead in Kızılağaç on Kargın Gölü (different in [1. 520; …

Phoetiae

(138 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Φοιτίαι/ Phoitíai, also Φυτία/ Phytía). City in Acarnania (Acarnanians), 4 km to the northwest of modern Bambini. In a strategically favourable location P. dominated a fertile plateau in the interior of Acarnania and was one of the leading cities of the Acarnanian Koinon. During the division of Acarnania in the 3rd century BC P. remained Aetolian until conquered by Philip  [7] V in 219 BC. A plan of P. can be found in [1]. Cf. IG IX 12 2, 389, 602; mentions in theorodokoi lists: IG IV2 95 Z. 11; SEG 36, 3…

Cephallenia

(929 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Κεφαλληνία; Kephallēnía). The largest of the Ionian islands west of Greece, with an area of about 761 km2, a length of 50 km with a north-south orientation and a maximum width of 25 km. Because of the contour of the island and the high limestone mountains (modern Enos, Efmorfia, Agia Dinati), several separate settlement areas existed which only in modern times were linked by roads. From the main body of the island to the north protrudes the Erisos peninsula, while in the west, the latter is link…

Arachthus

(72 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἄραχθος; Árachthos). Greatest river of southern  Epirus (also Ἄραθθος, Ἄρατθος; Áraththos, Áratthos CEG 1,145; BMC Corinth 107; Str. 7,7,8; Dionysius Calliphontus 42); rises near the Molossi on the Lacmon (Pindus); navigable from its mouth on the Gulf of Ambracia to  Ambracia. Shifting river-bed in its lower reaches from ancient times [1]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 P. N. Doukellis, É. Fouache, in: BCH 116, 1992, 375-382 2 N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967 3 Philippson/Kirsten 2, 115-121.

Cissa

(45 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Also Gissa, Kissa (Plin. HN 3,140; 151). North Dalmatian island (modern Pag, Croatia) of the  Mentores (Scyl. 21). Ancient settlement near modern Časka, relationship with the Roman Calpurnii family. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 199 Id., The Illyrians, 1992.

Ambracia

(566 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars (Ἀμβρακία; Ambrakía). South Epirote town in Thesprotia, originally about 80 stades upriver of the mouth of the Arachthus (navigable up to A.) into the Gulf of A. (Scyl. 33), the location of the modern Arta. The older form of its name, up to the 4th cent. BC, was Ἀμπρακία ( Amprakía; Hdt.; Thuc.; coins), derived from the castle of Ambrakos in the lagoons south of the town (Pol. 4,61,4 ff…

Aeginium

(140 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Αἰγίνιον; Aigínion). Town in Tymphania, originally taken as belonging to Epirus (Str. 7,7,9), but from 191 BC belonging to Macedonia, from 167 BC to the Thessalonian Hestiaiotis. Strategically important location in the upper valley of the Peneius (impregnable according to Liv. 32,15,4), destroyed by the Romans in the Third Macedonian War in 167 BC (Liv. 45,27). Its localization close to the modern Kalambaka [3. 121-123; 1. 898] (medieval Stagoi [4. 262 f.]) seems to be certain, de…

Amphilochi, Amphilochia

(306 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀμφίλοχοι, Ἀμφιλοχία; Amphílochoi, Amphilochía). Region and tribe east of the Gulf of  Ambracia, mainly mountainous, only a narrow coastal plain, bordering to the east on the   Agraei, to the south on  Acarnania. Str. 7,7,1; 7,8 ranked them amongst the Epirotes, but generally, they were considered to be a separate ‘Barbarian’ tribe (Dionysius Calliphontus 46 f.; Str. 9,5,1; Thuc. 2,68; [2. 351 f.]). According to older tradition, the main town of Argos Amphilochicum was founded by  A…
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