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(1,617 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Tsochos, Charalampos (Erfurt)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Peloponnesian War | Pompeius | Education / Culture (Σαμοθράκη; Samothrákē). [German version] I. Geography and history Island (178 km2, with Mount Phengari, 1161 m) in the northern Aegean Sea, 30 km out from the Tracian coast, rich in water, with a narrow and flat beach and lacking in natural harbours. There are isolated traces of Neolithic settlements (near Karyotai and Mikro Vuni), in the Bronze Age it was occupied by Thracians. In c. 700 BC, S. was settled by Greek colonists, probably by Aeolis [1] of Lesbos, who fou…


(190 words)

Author(s): Tsochos, Charalampos (Erfurt)
[German version] (θυμέλη/ thymélē; etymology already disputed among ancient authors; derivations mentioned are from the verbs thýein, 'sacrifice', or títhēmi, 'place, stand'). Thymele (and correspondingly the adjective thymelikós) is used with various meanings in ancient literature: as a place of fire and sacrifice (Hesych. s.v. θ.; Eur. El. 713), an altar (Eur. Rhes. 234; Aesch. Supp. 675; IG II 2,161 A 95; Poll. 4,123), a flat podium of boards (Plut. Alexandros 67,2), 'holy ground' in the sense of a temple or shrine (Eu…


(7,045 words)

Author(s): Tsochos, Charalampos (Erfurt) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Genz, Hermann (Istanbul) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Introduction The Greek word νεκρόπολις/ nekrópolis, ‘city of the dead’, is attested in Antiquity only in Strabo (17,1,10,14) as the name of a suburb of Alexandria [1] (Necropolis). Modern scholarship transfers the term necropolis to cemeteries of various cultures and time periods. General definitions as to shape and size do not exist. In this article, necropolis refers only to sites of a certain size and usually lying outside the settlements themselves. The size of a necropolis, the …


(141 words)

Author(s): Tsochos, Charalampos (Erfurt)
[German version] (θύρσος; thýrsos). A wood or reed staff with a crown of ivy or wine leaves at the end; in place of the crown of leaves depictions (cf. [1]) also show a pinecone. The thyrsos is primarily in Attic vase painting one of the main attributes of Dionysus, his followers (Maenads and Satyrs) and Ariadne. As an actual cult object the thyrsos was carried by adherents of the cult of Dionysus, as well as by his priests (Ael. VH 13,2). The etymology of the word is uncertain; the stem thyrs- is a part of a number of plant names. The sacred plant of Dionysus (Narthex [1]) is occasi…


(981 words)

Author(s): Tsochos, Charalampos (Erfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Mineral Resources Prehistoric settlement on the south-eastern coast of the island of Lemnos. Discovered in 1930, it is one of the most important prehistoric sites of the Aegean. Italian excavations between 1930 and 1956, and again from 1986, have so far unearthed approximately half of the entire area of P. The late Neolithic and Bronze Age settlement developed around the turn of the 4th and 3rd millennia BC. Settlem…