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(287 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Φείδιππος; Pheídippos). [German version] [1] Son of Thessalus, naval commander at Troy Son of Thessalus, brother of Antiphus, consequently grandson of  Heracles [1] and Chalciope [3] (Hyg. Fab. 97,14). One of Helen [1]'s suitors (Hyg. Fab. 81). He and his brother command 30 ships at Troy (Hom. Il. 2,676-680). On the voyage home he is blown off course to Thesprotia, where he also dies. In Odysseus's tall stories  (Hom. Od. 14,316; 19,287) the king Pheidon of the Thesproti appears twice. The latter's name is…

Periods, division into

(2,403 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne)
[German version] I. Terminology The division into periods, or periodization, imbues large segments of history with meaning relative to the uniform progress of time, so that they form a unit (period, epoch, age) with regard to a selected aspect. Individual events thereby obtain the rank of turning points or caesuras. As the determination of qualitative differences in the course of time, periodization, considered from the viewpoint of a theory of history, is – like historical reconstruction itself - t…


(216 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne)
[German version] (Φορμίσιος/ Phormísios). Athenian, returned from Piraeus in 403 BC with Thrasybulus and the democrats after he had fled the oligarchical regime ( triákonta ). His motion on the return of the refugees in Eleusis and limitation of citizenship rights to house and land owners in accordance with the will of Sparta (Dion. Hal. Lysias 32,2) can be seen as a compromise between the restored democracy and oligarchic ideas on the basis of the amnesty and with the goal of a reconciliation support…


(600 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne)
[German version] (πεντηκονταετία; pentēkontaetía). In its narrower sense, the pentekontaetia is Thucydides' chronologically imprecise summary (Thuc. 1,89-117), which was probably inserted late [6. 195], of the period of almost fifty years from 479 to 431 BC (in fact only until 439 BC), centring on the thesis of the rise of Athenian power and Sparta's increasing fear of it. In modern scholarship, the term is used in a wider sense to refer to the history of this period in general. The Greek word does not co…


(5,673 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλων/ Phíl ōn). [German version] [I 1] Athenian politician Athenian from Acharnae who was exiled by the Oligarchic regime in 404 BC (Triakonta). During the civil war, he lived as a metoikos (resident without Attic citizenship) in Oropos awaiting the outcome of events. Following his return, when he applied to join the boulḗ he was accused of cowardice and other misdemeanours at a dokimasia investigation (Dokimasia) (Lys. 31; possibly 398 BC). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass, vol.1, 480f.  Th.Lenschau, A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 2526f. …


(2,678 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Στέφανος; Stéphanos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Antidorides from the deme Eroiadai (Syll.3 205 = IG II/III2 213 = Tod 168: request to renew friendship and alliance with Mytilene in the spring of 346 BC), as prosecutor and politician aligned with Callistratus [2]. The allegation by Apollodorus [1] that S. had attempted to pass off the children of (his children by?) his common-law spouse, Neaera [6], a former hetaera from Corinth, as his own children from a legitimate marr…


(204 words)

Author(s): Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Walter, Uwe (Cologne)
(Τεισίας/ Teisías). [German version] [1] From Syracuse, founder of rhetoric, 5th cent. BC Syracusan; ancient tradition ascribed to him, in addition to Corax [3] (see there for details), the invention and foundation of rhetoric in the 5th cent. BC. Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) [German version] [2] From Athens, c. 400 BC Athenian, relative of Charicles [1], a councillor (Isoc. Or. 16,43) during the oligarchy ( Triákonta ), who in c. 397/6 BC sued Alcibiades for damages because at the Olympic Games (416?; [1. 202 f.]) the latter's father Alcibiades [3] had proclaimed…


(1,876 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne)
[German version] I. General The modern term infrastructure refers to the structures and arrangements which create the material prerequisites for the social processes of production and exchange. This definition, under which for antiquity the systems of transport and communications infrastructure (roads, bridges, harbours) can be subsumed, emphasizes the economic function of infrastructure. It goes without saying that infrastructure also served military purposes. It is also meaningful to regard as inf…


(414 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne)
[German version] (Φρύνη; Phrýnē). Born before 371 BC in Thespiae, best known hetaera of the 4th cent. BC, celebrated for her quick wit (Ath. 13,585e-f) and the natural beauty of her face (Gal. protrepticus 10); she was quite reticent in showing off her body [2. 157f.]. The numerous anecdotes about her come partly from the biographical tradition regarding her prominent lovers Hypereides and Praxiteles; there was also a piece of writing (or a speech) by Aristogeiton about her specifically (all source…


(397 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Στρατοκλῆς/ Stratoklês). [German version] [1] Of Athens, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Charidemus of the Oion deme, relative and part heir of the wealthy Hagnias. After S.' death ( c. 360 BC), there was a legal dispute between his brother Theopompus and the guardian of his son for half of the Hagnias legacy (Isaeus 11). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass 2, 565-570  A. Schäfer, Demosthenes und seine Zeit (Beilagen), 1858, 229-236  PA 12942  W. E. Thompson, De Hagniae Hereditate, 1976. [German version] [2] Of Athens, c. 300 BC Athenian, son of Euthydemus of the Diomea deme, c. 360/…


(77 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne)
[German version] (Ταυροσθένης; Taurosthénēs) from Chalcis, son of Mnesarchus, supported his brother Callias [9] in an attempt at independent Euboean power politics between 349 and 338 BC. When he joined the Athenian position on Demosthenes' [2] instigation, he was given Athenian citizenship. After the battle of Chaeronea (in 338) T. lived in Athens. Main sources: Aeschin. 3,85-87 with schol.; Din. 1,44. Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography PA 13435  I. Worthington, A Historical Commentary on Dinarchus, 1992, 207-209 (Lit.).

Status symbols

(1,075 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne)
[German version] I. Status: concept and issues Status denotes the social position of an individual. In the narrower sense, it implies clear legal qualities, e.g. connected with membership of the citizenry of a city, a social order ( ordo II, cf. status [2]) or the groups of free-men, freedmen or slaves. Objectifiable criteria of distinction, such as official rank or age, also determine status. More broadly, and with reference to society, status refers to the degree of social prominence attained. Important status symbols in ancient history were origin, wealth, education, ran…


(107 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne)
[German version] (Σκιρωνίδης; Skirōnídēs). Athenian who, as strategos, together with Phrynichus [2] and others led an offensive to reconquer Miletus [2] in the summer of 412 BC. In spite of victory in the land battle, the offensive was broken off - contrary to the votes of S. i.a. - because of the superiority of the Spartan fleet (Thuc. 8,25-27). As commanders of the fleet at Samos, he and Phrynichus were dismissed at the beginning of 411 (Thuc. 8,54,3). His attitude to the oligarchy of the Four Hundred ( Tetrakósioi ) is unclear. Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography D. Kagan, The Fall of th…