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Kalkriese

(495 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Kalkriese In the course of systematic archaeological investigations since 1987 in K. near Bramsche, district of Osnabrück, several Roman period finds have come to light, attesting to an extensive battleground between the Romans and the Germani (see illustration). By the end of 1997, a total of almost 3,000 objects had been recovered, among them some 1,300 coins and 1,600 ‘militaria’ in the broadest sense attributable to the Romans. In addition t…

Teutoni

(592 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic tribe, settled, according to Pytheas [4] (Plin. HN 37,35) on the western coast of Jutland, probably neighbouring the Cimbri (= C.), in conjunction with whom they are often named (cf. Vell. Pat. 2,8), most scholars (cf. e.g. [1. 232 note 71]) therefore supposing that the two tribes migrated southwards together to the Danube (Ister, Istrus [1]), to Noricum (victory over Papirius [I 8] Carbo at Noreia in 113 BC) and thence through the region of the Helvetii to Gaul (Gallia).…

Semnones

(252 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Tribe of the Suebi between Albis (Elbe) and Viadua (Oder; Str. 7,1,3; Tac. Germ. 39; Tac. Ann. 2,45,1; Ptol. 3,1,22; 51), known to the Romans mainly through Tiberius’ campaign in AD 5 (R. Gest. div. Aug. 26; Vell. Pat. 2,106 f.). Given their size and cultic tradition, they regarded themselves as the oldest and most notable of the Suebi (Tac. Germ. 39; cf. [2.473-479]). As allies of Maroboduus, they fell to the Cherusci in AD 17 (Tac. Ann. 2,45,1), but were considered to be friendl…

Portus

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Artificially extended harbour complex near Ostia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre An artificial harbour complex, created under the emperor Claudius (AD 41-54) to extend the harbour of Ostia (with plan) and enlarged under Trajan (AD 98-117), c. 3 km northwest of Ostia. The Claudian harbour basin ( c. 80 hectares) was protected from the sea by a mole structure (but not actually safe; in AD 62 almost 200 ships went down in a storm: Tac. Ann. 15,18) and marked by a lighthouse (cf. plan: 1) (according to Suet. C…

Lemovii

(79 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Tribe on the Baltic Sea between the Oder and the Vistula (Tac. Germ. 44,1), neighbouring the Rugii. The version of the name is uncertain, and identification with other tribal names, passed down to us, for instance in Ptolemy, is hypothetical. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography A. Franke, s.v. L., RE Suppl. 5, 549 G. Perl, in: J. Herrmann (ed.), Griech. und lat. Quellen zur Frühgesch. Mitteleuropas bis zur Mitte des 1. Jt. u.Z., Teil 2, 1990, 249.

Silva Marciana

(43 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Probably a term in late Antiquity (Tab. Peut. 2,4; 4,1; Amm. Marc. 21,8,2 referring to 361 AD) for the Black Forest, which elsewhere is called Abnoba mons . Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography A. Franke, s. v. Marciana silva, RE 14, 1504 f.

Lupia

(340 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] A. Geography and tradition Righthand tributary flowing into the Rhine a little above Vetera (Str. 7,1,3), modern Lippe. For Mela 3,30, Moenus (Main) and L. are the best-known tributaries of the Rhine ( Rhenus), and these names were used for the most important Roman invasion routes into Germania Magna. Mentioned on several occasions in the course of the Roman offensives into the area east of the Rhine from 12 BC to AD 15/6 (Cass. Dio 54,33,1-4; Tac. Ann. 1,60,3; 2,7,1). In AD 70 the c…

Ubii

(479 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic tribe (Caes. B Gall. 4,3,3; Tac. Germ. 28,4; Tac. Hist. 4,28,1; 4,64), settled in Caesar's time on the right bank of the Rhine (Rhenus [2]) between the lower La(u)gona (modern Lahn) and Taunus. Displaced by the Suebi, the U. allied with Caesar in 55 BC (Caes. B Gall. 4,8,3; 16,5-8). Caesar's Rhine crossings in 55 and 53 BC probably took place from the Neuwieder Becken in the territory of the U. The history and chronology of their resettlement on the left bank of the Rhine…

Sugambri

(231 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] People of the Germanic Istaevones (Plin. HN 4,100) on the right bank of the Rhenus [2] opposite the Eburones and between the Ubii and the Bructeri. To the east, they bordered on the Chatti and the Cherusci. In 55 BC they absorbed the the Usipetes and the Tencteri, whom Caesar had defeated, and crossed the river into their territory (Caes. B Gall. 4,16-19; Plut. Caesar 22; Cass. Dio 39,48,3-5). In 53 BC …

Lopodunum

(464 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] modern Ladenburg in the lower reaches of the Nicer (Neckar). The Celtic place name, earlier also interpreted as ‘stronghold of Lo(u)pos’, means something like ‘swamp fortress’ [1]. Few archaeological traces of the former Celtic population are preserved. From about the Tiberian period (AD 14-37), Suebi from the Germanic Elbe area settled in the region of the lower river. It is assumed that the Romans themselves settled them, or at least tolerated their settlement, in order to secure the territory on the eas…

Lesura

(92 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Left-hand tributary of the Moselle (Auson. Mos. 365), which flows into the Moselle near Bernkastel, modern Lieser. L. or Lesora is the name of a mountain in the Cevennes, modern Lozère (Sid. Apoll. Carm. 24,44; cf. Plin. HN 11, 240), Lesuros (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 48) a river on the east coast of Spain. There is also a Lieser in Carinthia (Austria). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography F. Cramer, s.v. L., RE 12, 2138 L. Weisgerber, Erläuterungen zur Karte der römerzeitlich bezeugten rheinischen Namen, in: Rheinische Vierteljahresblätter 23, 1958, 15.

Iuliacum

(169 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Roman posting station (It. Ant. 375,8; 378,7; Tab. Peut. 2,5) in Germania inferior on the road from Cologne to Tongeren at the crossing of the Rur, the modern Jülich. Epigraphically attested is [vic]ani [Iuliac]enses on the base of a Jupiter column from the early 2nd cent. AD [1. 195 no. 196]. Bricks of the legio VI Victrix, a dedication by one of its soldiers (CIL XIII 7869), and a funerary relief confirm the presence of the military. I. was the central place of a fertile settlement landscape with many villae rusticae. In the early 4th cent., I. was fortified with a …

Saxones

(589 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Σάξονες/ Sáxones, the Saxons). Association of Germanic tribes, first mentioned at Ptol. 2,11,11. According to him, they settled in Holstein to the northeast of the lower Elbe; in the west their territory bordered the sea (Ptol. 2,11,31: three Saxon islands). Presumably the S. originated from the Reudigni and the Aviones (Tac. Germ. 40,2) [1]. They may have become known to the Romans earlier, possibly in 5 AD when a fleet sailed to the Cimbrian peninsula, yet Tacitus does not menti…

Salii

(1,051 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Linderski, Jerzy (Chapel Hill, NC)
[German version] [1] Sub-tribe of the Franci According to the prevailing view, the S. are considered a sub-tribe of the Franci originally from the north of the Rhine delta, later in Toxandria (modern Belgian Brabant; Amm. Marc. 17,8,3); the Merovingians are also supposed to have begun their rise as kings of the S. or ‘Salian Franks’ [1. 524-541; 2; 4; 5. 55-57 and fig. 39]. The S. are first mentioned by Julian. Ep. 361 for the year AD 358: according to his account, some of the S. subjected themselves t…

Cugerni

(311 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Cuberni). Presumably a part of a tribe, certainly one of the groups succeeding the  Sugambri resettled by the Romans in 8 BC on the lefthand side of the Rhine (on the motives [1]). According to Pliny (HN 4,106: Cuberni) they lived between the  Ubii in the south and the  Batavi in the north and probably already created in the 1st cent. AD a   civitas based on peregrine law. On the basis of an extant fragmentary inscription (AE 1981, 690 = AE 1984, 650) from AD 68, Cib[ernodurum] was developed close to the later  Colonia Ulpi…

Vetera

(975 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul | Legio | Legio | Limes | Limes | Batavian Revolt Roman camp on the Rhine at the 60th milestone downstream from Colonia Agrippinensis (modern Cologne; Tac. Ann. 1,45,1) between the modern towns of Birten and Xanten. The camp originated from the early Imperial period. The name, probably indigenous, refers to an archaeologically unattested earlier settlement nearby (cf. Tac. Hist. 4,18,3: castra quibus Veterum nomen est, 'camp with the name V.', quite often in accounts of the Batavian Revolt; Ptol.…

Sitones

(65 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] People neighbouring the Suiones, ruled at the time of Tacitus (Tac. Germ. 45,6) by a woman. Their area of settlement cannot be ascertained, possibly in modern Finland. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography A. A. Lund (ed.), P. Cornelius Tacitus, Germania, 1988, 237 f.  G. Perl, Tacitus, Germania, in: J. Herrmann (ed.), Griechische und lateinische Quellen zur Frühgeschichte Mitteleuropas ..., vol. 2, 1990, 257 f.  J. B. Rives, Tacitus, Germania, 1999, 321.

Laciburgium

(62 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Λακιβούργιον; Lakiboúrgion). Site in northern Germania magna, west of the Oder (Ptol. 2,11,12), not yet localized. Possibly a misspelling of Asciburgium (modern Moers-Asberg). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography A. Franke, s.v. L., RE 12, 344f. G. Chr. Hansen, in: J. Herrmann (ed.), Griech. und lat. Quellen zur Frühgesch. Mitteleuropas bis zur Mitte des 1. Jt. u.Z., Teil 3, 1991, 581.

Germani, Germania

(3,987 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
G. is a collective noun attested in various regions of Europe and West Asia and was disseminated, at least in part, by the migrations of splinter groups. Linguistically, Germanic belongs to the Indo-European language family ( Germanic languages); the term ‘Germanic’ was attributed from outside. Countering popular, Romantically influenced ideas that assumed a parallelism of language and material culture, as well as a lasting ethnic constancy, and countering an inherently racist concept of the uni…

Salmona

(26 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Left tributary of the Moselle (Auson. Mos. 366), present-day Salm. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. B. Keune, s. v. S., RE 1 A, 1986.
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