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Scadinavia

(155 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Name of an island of enormous size (Mela 3,54: S. a conjectural reading for Codannovia; Plin. HN 4,96; 8,39: S., various MSS: Scati-), which became known to the Romans during a naval expedition involving circumnavigation of Jutland in AD 5 (R. Gest. div. Aug. 26; Vell. Pat. 2,106,3; Plin. HN 2,167). In addition, Plin. HN 4,104 (following unnamed informants) incorrectly locates the Scandiae Islands to the north of Britain (cf. Ptol. 2,11,33). These designate primarily southern Sweden and the Danish isles (cf. also Ptol. 2,11,34: Σκανδίαι/ Skandíai with the main isla…

Limes

(12,382 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Et al.
[German version] I. General In the religious and administrative theory of the land surveyors, the Latin word limes denoted the path marking the boundary between two pieces of land, while in military and political usage (Tac. Ann. 1,50; Frontin. Str. 1,3,10) it meant the border between Roman and non-Roman territory (SHA Hadr. 12). Over recent years, research has led the military connotation of the term limes, which has been used almost exclusively from the 19th cent., to be expanded to comprehend also the historico-geographical and socio-economic fields. Where the limites were origin…

Lupia

(340 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] A. Geography and tradition Righthand tributary flowing into the Rhine a little above Vetera (Str. 7,1,3), modern Lippe. For Mela 3,30, Moenus (Main) and L. are the best-known tributaries of the Rhine ( Rhenus), and these names were used for the most important Roman invasion routes into Germania Magna. Mentioned on several occasions in the course of the Roman offensives into the area east of the Rhine from 12 BC to AD 15/6 (Cass. Dio 54,33,1-4; Tac. Ann. 1,60,3; 2,7,1). In AD 70 the c…

Marsi

(456 words)

Author(s): de Vido, Stefania (Venice) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] Tribe in the Central Italian Appenninus Tribe in the Central Italian Appenninus near Lacus Fucinus (Str. 5,2,1; Ptol. 3,1,57), regarded as brave and warlike (Str. 5,4,2; Plin. HN 3,106; Liv. 8,29,4; Verg. G. 2,167; cf. the etymological derivation from ‘Mars’). As descendants of a son of Circe they allegedly were immune to snake poison (Plin. HN 7,15; 21,78; 25,11; 28,30; Gell. NA 16,11,1; cf. Cic. Div. 1,132; 2,70; Hor. Epod. 17,29; Hor. Carm. 2,20,18). Characteristic of the M. was t…

Saravus

(196 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] River springing from Mont Donon in the Vosges (Vosegus) and flowing into the Mosella near Contoniacum; the present-day Saar river. Pier substructures testify to the existence of a bridge along the road Divodurum (Metz) - Augusta [6] Treverorum (Trier); the valley road running on the right of the Mosella converged to this bridge as well. There is evidence of other bridges upriver. The ‘winding S.’ (Auson. Mos. 91-93; cf. 367-369) was navigable up to Saarburg. A vicus S. is mentioned in an inscription on a column from Mont Donon, along the procession road l…

Tabernae

(247 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] Township in the territory of the Nemetes Township in the territory of the Nemetes on the Roman road on the west bank of the Rhenus [2] (It. Ant. 355; Amm. 16,2,12; Not. Dign. Occ. 41,16; Tab. Peut. 3,3), modern Rheinzabern. There is evidence  of brickworks of the legions of upper Germania from about AD 45 until c. AD 80; a fort, however, is not certain. After the withdrawal of the military brickworks, everyday and fine ceramics were made there for civilian needs. In about the middle of the 2nd cent. AD, a factory was developed for t…

Mogontiacum

(986 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Legio | Legio | Limes | Limes | Rome | Rome | Batavian Revolt Roman Mainz. An indigenous settlement near Mainz-Weisenau, named after a Celtic deity, seems to have given it the name. In the middle of the 2nd decade BC a Roman double legion camp was constructed on a high terrace on the left bank of the Rhine opposite the mouth of the Main. From this strategically favourable position between 10 BC and AD 16 there were repeatedly successful Roman advances into the territory of  Germania Magna. Together w…

Quadriburgium

(352 words)

Author(s): Kuhnen, Hans-Peter (Trier) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Late Antique type of fort Late Antique type of fort. The high defensive wall, generally on a square ground plan with sides measuring between 15 and 40 m, was protected on the outside by square or rectangular corner and intermediate towers. Troop casements abutted inside. The inner courtyard contained a subterranean cistern. Fortifications [III B]; Limes Kuhnen, Hans-Peter (Trier) Bibliography S. Johnson, Late Roman Fortifications, 1983, 27, 253 ff. [German version] [2] Settlement, probable find site on the hill of Qualburg (lower Rhine) Settlement, probably t…

Marcodurum

(69 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Settlement in the western territory of the Ubii, possibly modern Düren or, more probably, Merken near Düren, where the cohortes Ubiorum were destroyed during the uprising of Iulius [II 43] Civilis in AD 69 (Tac. Hist. 4,28,2). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography A. Franke, s.v. M., RE 14, 1680f. C. B. Rüger, Germania Inferior, 1968, 82.

Visurgis

(306 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] River which, according to Ptol. 2,11,1 (Οὐισούργιος/ Ouisoúrgios) in combination with 2,11,5, rises on Mons Melibocus [2. 560], modern river Weser; for the etymology cf. [1. 366 f.]. In 12 BC, Nero Claudius [II 24] (Drusus the Elder) arrived by sea in the land of the Chauci between the Amisia [1] (modern Ems) and the V. (Cass. Dio 54,32,2). In 11 BC, he advanced by land against the Cherusci and the Chauci to the V., without crossing it (Cass. Dio 54,33,1-3). It was not until 9 BC that he…

Iversheim

(222 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Roman centre of lime extraction in Germania inferior, modern Bad Münstereifel-I. on the Erft. The oldest finds go back to the 1st cent. AD. A complete lime kiln was excavated. Around AD 270 the plants were badly destroyed by the Franks, but were rebuilt soon afterwards. In the 4th cent. the operation of the kiln was abandoned. The area was for the most part under the control of the military. From the middle of the 2nd to the 3rd cent. a vexillatio of the legio I Minervia (CIL XIII 7943-7948) from Bonn was stationed there. From the 3rd cent. votive stones of members of the legio XXX …

La(u)gona

(52 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Name of the River Lahn, first attested in the 6th cent. AD in Venantius Fortunatus c. 7,7,58 (also Logona in manuscript). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. B. Keune, s.v. L., RE 12, 999 L. Weisgerber, Erläuterung zur Karte der römerzeitlich bezeugten rheinischen Namen, in: Rheinische Vierteljahresblätter 23, 1958, 15.
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