Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Wixman, R." ) OR dc_contributor:( "Wixman, R." )' returned 34 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

K̲h̲unzal

(270 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(self designation, K̲h̲unzami; Russian designations K̲h̲unzali̊, Gun(d)zali̊, Gunzebi, Gunzibtsi̊, Enzebi, Nak̲h̲ad; other designations, K̲h̲unzeb, Gunzeb), a numerically small people of the eastern Caucasus. K̲h̲unzal forms with Bez̲h̲eta, Dido, Ginuk̲h̲ and K̲h̲vars̲h̲i [ qq.v.], the Dido division of the Avar-Andi-Dido group, of the north-eastern Ibero-Caucasian languages. According to the Soviet census, in 1926 there were, ethnically, 106 K̲h̲unzals, and 129 claiming K̲h̲unzal as their mother tongue; in 1933 (estimation by Grande) there…

K̲h̲vars̲h̲i̊

(306 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(self-designation, Kedaes hikwa, K̲h̲uani, K̲h̲vars̲h̲al; in Russian, K̲h̲vars̲h̲intsi̊) an ethnic group in the Caucasus whose language forms, with Bez̲h̲eta, Ginuk̲h̲, Dido and K̲h̲unzal [ qq.v.] the Dido division of the Avar-Andi-Dido group of the north-eastern Ibero-Caucasian languages. According to the 1926 Soviet census, there were 1,019 ethnic K̲h̲vars̲h̲i̊s. of whom 1,018 gave K̲h̲vars̲h̲i̊ as their maternal tongue. They formerly lived in five auls (including K̲h̲vars̲h̲i̊ and Ink̲h̲orari) on the upper course of the Ori-Tsḳalis…

Lezg̲h̲

(980 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(self-designation: Lezg̲h̲i, pl. Lezg̲h̲iar; Russian variants: Lezgintsy, Kyurintsy; others: Lezg, Lezgin, Kürin), a Muslim people of the Caucasus. The Lezg̲h̲ language belongs with Agul, Rutul, Tsak̲h̲ur, Tabasaran, Buduk̲h̲, K̲h̲inalug, Ḳri̊z, Dhzek, K̲h̲aput and Udi to the Samurian group of the Northeast-Caucasian (Čečeno-Lezgian) language family. The Lezg̲h̲ language is comprised of three closely-related dialects, all of which have been strongly influenced by the Azeri Turkish language, sc. Kürin (Günei) and …

Ḳarata

(607 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(self designation, Kirtle , pl. Kirtlei ; Russ. Karatai , Karatin ( tsi ), Kirdli ; Avar Ḳalalal ; other Kirdi Ḳalal ), along with Andi [ q.v.], Ak̲h̲wak̲h̲, Bagulal, Botlik̲h̲, Čamalal, Godoberi and Tindi forms the Andi division of the Avar-Andi-Dido group of the Ibero-Caucasian languages; the Ḳarata-speaking peoples. According to an estimate of 1886 ( Dagestanskaya Oblast ’) there were 7,217 Ḳarata at that time; in 1926 there were 5,305 and in 1933 (estimate by Grande) 7,000. The Ḳarata inhabit the northern part of Ak̲h̲vak̲h̲ di…

Ḳapuča

(225 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
, a small Muslim people of the Caucasus, (self designation: Ḳapučias suko or Bez̲h̲tlas suko; Russian: Ḳapučini̊ or Bez̲h̲itini̊), whose language forms with Dido [ q.v.], Ginuk̲h̲ [ q.v.], K̲h̲unzal [ q.v.], and K̲h̲vars̲h̲i [ q.v.], the Dido division of the Avar-Andi-Dido group of the northeastern Ibero-Caucasian languages. In 1926 the Soviet census gave the population as 1,448. The Ḳapuča inhabit the awl s of Bez̲h̲iti, K̲h̲očark̲h̲ota, and Tliadal in the upper basin of the Avar Ḳoysu, Tliarata district, in the Dāg̲h̲istān A.S.S.R. L…

Ḳri̇z

(199 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(Russian designation, Kri̊zi̊ [from the aul Ḳri̊z]), a small Caucasian ethnic group, forming with the K̲h̲aput [ q.v.] and Dzhek the Dzhek subdivision of the Samurian group (Lezghin, Agul, Rutul, Tsak̲h̲ur, Tabasaran, Buduk̲h̲, Dzhek), of the north-eastern Ibero-Caucasian language family. According to the 1926 Soviet census, ethnically there were 5 Ḳri̊z, and linguistically 4,348 (including speakers of Dzhek and K̲h̲aput dialects). According to a 1954 estimate, there were some hundreds of Ḳri̊z living in a single aul, that of Ḳri̊z, located in the basin of the upper Ḳud…

Ḳaraḳalpaḳ

(724 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Wixman, R.
(Turkic “black hat”), a Turkic people of Central Asia. In the Russian annals, a people of this name (Černiye Klobutsi) is mentioned as early as the 12th century A.D.; but whether these “black hats” are identical with the modern Ḳaraḳalpaḳ cannot be definitely ascertained. It is not until the end of the 11th/17th century that there are records of the Ḳaraḳalpaḳ, in Central Asia. According to the embassy report of Skibin and Tros̲h̲in (1694), they then lived on the Si̊r Daryā, 10 days’ journey bel…

Rutul

(794 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
, a people of Dāg̲h̲istān in the eastern Caucasus. Until the Soviet period the Rutuls lacked a common ethnic self-designation, but rather referred to themselves by village ( aul ) or as members of the Rutul Magal . The Rutul Magal was one of the numerous free societies or clan federations found in Dāg̲h̲istān prior to the Soviet period. This is one of the few cases where all of the members of a given ethnic group belonged to the same free society. In addition to the Rutuls, who dominated this free society, a n…

Kwanadi

(217 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(self-designation—Kwantl hekua or Bagolal; Russian designation—Bagulali̊, but Kvanadinskiy yazi̊k for language), a people of the eastern Caucasus. Kwanadi forms, with Andi, Ak̲h̲wak̲h̲, Botlik̲h̲, Čamalal, Godoberi, Ḳarata and Tindi, the Andi division of the Avar-Andi-Dido group of the Ibero-Caucasian languages. Their population was 3,054 according to the 1926 Soviet census. The Kwanadi inhabit the auls of K̲h̲us̲h̲tada, Kwanada (Tsumada region), Gimerso, Tisi, Tlibis̲h̲o (Ak̲h̲wak̲h̲ region) south of the bend of the Andi Ḳoysu in the Dāg̲h̲is…

Ḳubači

(294 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
, self-designation, Urbug̲h̲; Russian, Kubačintsi̊; Arabie and Persian, Zirihgarān), a people of the eastern Caucasus. The Ḳubači inhabit the single aul of Ḳubači, located in Dak̲h̲adaev rayon , Dāg̲h̲istān. They are a Caucasie people whose language belongs with Ḳaytaḳ and Dargin to the Dargino-Lak (Lak-Dargwa) group of the Ibero-Caucasian language family. Ḳubači is now regarded as a dialect of the Dargin language, and they are considered in the Soviet Union as a sub-group of Dargins rather than as a…

Laḳ

(1,121 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(self-designation: Laḳ, Laḳuču; Russian variants: Lak(tsi), Kazikumuk̲h̲(tsi); Avar: Tumaw, pl. Tumal; Lezg: Yak̲h̲ols̲h̲u: Dargin: Vuluguni, Vulečuni; other: Ḳaziḳumuk̲h̲ [from Arabic G̲h̲āzī, warrior for the faith, and Ḳumuk̲h̲, the political and cultural centre of the Laḳ territory, see Ḳumuḳ]), a Muslim people of the Caucasus. The Laḳ language belongs with Dargin, Ḳaytaḳ and Ḳubači [ q.vv.] to the Dargino-Laḳ (Laḳ-Dargwa) group of the Northeast-Caucasian language family. There are five dialects of the Laḳ language, As̲h̲ti Ḳuli, Balk̲h̲ar, Vits…

Kürin

(48 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
, designation used by the Ottomans in the 10th/16th century and by the Russians in the 18th-19th centuries for the Lezg̲h̲ins [ q.v.]. Kürin (Russian: Kürinskiy yazi̊k) is also the former designation ¶ for the Lezg̲h̲in language, and appears as such in the 1926 Soviet census. (R. Wixman)

Ḳaytaḳ

(706 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(self designation, Kaydaḳlan, pl. Kaydaḳ: Russ. K̲h̲aydaki, Kaytagi, Kaytaki, Karakaytaki; other forms, K̲h̲aytaḳ, Ḳaytak̲h̲, Ḳara Ḳaytak̲h̲), a small Dāg̲h̲istān [ q.v.] group, which forms with Ḳubači [ q.v.] and Dargin [ q.v.] the Dargin division of the Dargino-Lak group of the Ibero-Caucasian languages. ¶ According to the census of 1926, ethnically there were 14,430 Ḳaytaḳs, and 14,469 claiming Ḳaytaḳ as their mother tongue: in 1930 (estimation by Grande) there were 14,470 Ḳaytaḳs. The Ḳaytaḳs inhabit ten aul s in the Kaytak district, and the sou…

K̲h̲ems̲h̲in

(134 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(other designation, K̲h̲ems̲h̲ili), a numerically small group of Muslim (Sunnī) Armenians who had been converted from Christianity in the beginning of the 18th century. In the U.S.S.R. (population 629, according to the 1926 Soviet census), they now inhabit the Black Sea coast near the Turkish border. In Turkey they live in compact settlements along the Fîrtînî and Karadere rivers (Bas̲h̲ K̲h̲ems̲h̲in) and in the mountains not far from Hope (Hope K̲h̲ems̲h̲in). The traditional economy is based on…

K̲h̲inalug

(164 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(self designation: Kättitturdur; Russian, K̲h̲inalug [from the aul -K̲h̲inalug]), a people of the eastern Caucasus. K̲h̲inalug is a numerically small ethnical group, which forms an independent branch of the Northeastern Ibero-Caucasian language group. According to the 1926 Soviet census, there were (ethnically) 105 K̲h̲inalugs, and linguistically 1,540. The K̲h̲inalugs are Sunnī Moslems of the S̲h̲āfiʿī rite. The K̲h̲inalugs inhabit the aul K̲h̲inalug on the upper right arm of the Kudial-chay, in the Mount S̲h̲ak̲h̲dag̲h̲ area of Konak̲h̲kend rayon (Azer…

K̲h̲aputs

(190 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(Russian designation—K̲h̲aputtsi̊, Gaputlintsi̊, K̲h̲aputlintsi̊ (from the aul K̲h̲aput); other designation—K̲h̲aputli). a small Caucasian ethnical group, forming with the Ḳri̊z [ q.v.] and the Ḏz̲hek the Dzhek subdivision of the Samurian group (Lezhgin, Agul, Rutul, Tsak̲h̲ur, Tabasaran, Buduk̲h̲, Dzhek) of the Northeastern Ibero-Caucasian language family. According to the Soviet census, in 1926 there were ethnically 12 K̲h̲aputs, and linguistically 4,284 (including speakers of Ḏz̲hek and Ḳri̊z dialects); in 1933 (estimation) there were …

Ḳarapapak̲h̲

(276 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Wixman, R.
(Turkish, “black hat”), a Turkic people whose language belongs to the western Og̲h̲uz division, and differs little from Āzerī and the Turkish of Turkey. In the Georgian S.S.R. it is often confused with Āzerī, and in Turkey itself Ḳarapapak̲h̲ is no longer spoken (having been replaced by Turkish). In 1828, the Ḳarapapak̲h̲ emigrated from the region along the Debeda or Borčala river in eastern Georgia partly to the region of Ḳars (where they formed about 15% of the population) and partly to the Su…

Rutul

(797 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
, population du Dāg̲h̲istān, dans le Caucase oriental. Jusqu’à la période soviétique, les Rutuls ne s’appliquaient aucune désignation ethnique commune, mais se définissaient par village ( aul) ou comme membres du Rutul Magal. Le Rutul Magal était l’une des nombreuses associations autonomes, ou fédérations de clans existant au Dāg̲h̲istān avant la période soviétique. Il s’agit d’un des rares cas où tous les membres d’un groupe ethnique donné appartenait à la même association autonome. Outre les Rutuls, qui dominaient cette asso…

Ḳarapapak̲h̲

(319 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Wixman, R.
(du turc «chapeau noir») peuple turc dont la langue appartient à la catégorie de l’og̲h̲uz occidental et ne diffère guère de l’azéri et du turc. En URSS, elle est souvent considérée comme étant de l’azéri et, en Turquie même, elle n’est plus parlée, ayant été remplacée par le turc. En 1828, les Ḳarapapak̲h̲ émigrèrent de la région qui longe le Debeda ou Borcala en Arménie septentrionale (près de la frontière de la Géorgie) pour se rendre les uns dans la région de Kars, les autres dans celle de Sulduz, en Perse, au Sud du lac Rezayeh. Dans le d…

Lezg̲h̲

(979 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
, peuple musulman du Caucase (sg. Lezg̲h̲i, pl. Lezg̲h̲iar; russe: Lezgintsi̊, Kyurintsi̊; autres désignations: Lezg, Lezgin, Kürin). Sa langue appartient, avec l’agul, le rutul, le tsak̲h̲ur. le tabasaran, le buduk̲h̲, le k̲h̲inalug, le ḳri̊z, le dz̲h̲ek, le k̲h̲aput et l’udi, au groupe samurien de la famille Nord-caucasienne (čečeno-lezgien); elle comprend trois dialectes étroitement apparentés qui ont tous été fortement influencés par le turc azéri: le kürin (günei) et l’ak̲h̲ti̊ parlés dans …
▲   Back to top   ▲