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Pas̲h̲tūnistān

(981 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M.E.
, a name given to a projected political unit based on the North West Frontier province (NWFP) of Pākistān. The project had a dual origin, in the NWFP and in Afg̲h̲ānistān. Although Pas̲h̲tūns possessed a strong sense of cultural identity deriving from language, genealogy, law and custom, there is no evidence before the 1920s of any desire for political expression of that identity. A precondition of the formulation of political demands was the creation of a political arena in the form of the NWFP. The origins of the province m…

Hilmand

(260 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M.E.
( Helmand ), name of a river (the Etymandrus of Arrian, the Erymanthus of Polybius, the Haētūmat of the Avesta, the Hid̲h̲mand of the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam ) which, with its five great tributaries (K̲h̲ūd Rūd, Tirīn, Arg̲h̲andāb, Tarnak, Arg̲h̲asān) drains all south-west Afg̲h̲ānistān (see map at i, 222 above). Rising in a valley at the convergence of the Kūh-i Bābā and Sangak̲h̲ ranges, the river flows in a southwesterly direction through Hazārad̲j̲āt and Dihrāwat to K̲h̲wād̲j̲a ʿAlī, where it turns westward, and finally north, to lose itself in the lakes of Sīstān. It is na…

Kāmrān S̲h̲āh Durrānī

(263 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M.E.
, ruler of Harāt in succession to his father, Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh (d. 1244/1828). By alienating the powerful Bārakzay family Kāmrān contributed to the downfall of Sadōzay rule in Afg̲h̲ānistān in 1235/1818. Subsequently, Maḥmūd and Kāmrān disputed possession of Harāt, which comprised an area extending from the Harī Rūd in the west to the Hilmand river in the east and from Sīstān in the south to Maymana in the north, although their authority in the outlying areas was always contested. In his early year…

Wazīrīs and Wazīristān

(934 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M.E.
, the name of a Pas̲h̲tūn tribe and their region, essentially in the North-West Frontier region of present-day Pakistan. Wazīristān, the region, lies on Pakistan’s western frontier between the Kuṙam river in the north, the Gūmal in the south, and the western boundaries of the administered districts of Bannū and Dēra Ismāʿīl K̲h̲ān to the east. The western boundary of Wazīristān is roughly indicated by the international frontier with Afg̲h̲ānistān (the Durand Line) but the region extends into …

Yūsufzay

(714 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M.E.
, the name of a Pak̲h̲tū-speaking tribal confederation inhabiting the North West Frontier Province of Pākistān and divided into two broad groups: the Mandans (Mandanrs) who (together with the Baīzay Yūsufzays) inhabit the so-called Yūsufzay plain (mainly falling into Mardān district and divided into the taḥṣīl s of Sawābī and Mardān); and (confusingly) the Yūsufzays of the valleys of Swāt, Pand̲j̲kōra, Dīr and Bunēr and of the region to the east of the river Indus lying on the western slopes of the Black Mountain. Thes…

S̲h̲īr ʿAlī

(1,389 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M.E.
( ca. 1823-79), Amīr of Afg̲h̲ānistān 1863-79. He was the fifth son and successor of Amīr Dūst Muḥammad (d. 9 June 1863). His mother, K̲h̲adīd̲j̲a, was both Dust Muḥammad’s favourite wife and a Bārakzay (daughter of Raḥmat Allāh K̲h̲ān Popalzay) and probably for these reasons he was nominated heir following the death of his full brother, G̲h̲ulām Ḥaydar, on 2 July 1858, having previously served as governor of G̲h̲aznī. In 1863 S̲h̲īr ʿAlī’s claims were opposed by his elder half-brothers, Muḥammad Afḍal…

Hindū Kus̲h̲

(636 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M.E.
, extensive range of mountains in northern Afg̲h̲ānistān, which forms the watershed between the river systems of the Amū Daryā and the Indus [ qq.v.]. The range extends in a westerly direction from the junction of the Mustag̲h̲ and ¶ Sariḳol ranges in the region of the Pāmirs to where it is extinguished among the low hills of the Paropamisus range. The Kūh-i Bābā mountains are not so much an extension of the Hindū Kus̲h̲ as an overlapping range, separated from the Hindū Kus̲h̲ itself by the Bāmiyān valley. The o…

Mad̲j̲lis

(51,612 words)

Author(s): Ed. | W. Madelung | Rahman, Munibur | Landau, J. M. | Yapp, M.E. | Et al.
(a.), a noun of place from the verb d̲j̲alasa “to sit down” and, by extension, “to sit”, ¶ “to hold a session”; starting from the original meaning of “a place where one sits down, where one stays”, thence “a seat” (J. Sadan, Le mobilier au Proche-Orient médiéval , Leiden 1976, index), the semantic field of mad̲j̲lis is of very wide extent (see the dictionaries of Lane, Dozy, Blachère, etc.). Among the principal derivative meanings are “a meeting place”, “meeting, assembly” (cf. Ḳurʾān, LXVIII, 12/11), “a reception hall (of a ca…

Durrānī

(683 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M.E.
, an Afg̲h̲ān tribe known as Abdālī until their name was changed by Aḥmed S̲h̲āh Durrānī. (See abdālī , aḥmad s̲h̲āh , afg̲h̲ānistān ). The tribe was moved from Harāt and granted lands in the region of Ḳandahar by Nadir S̲h̲āh. At This time they were pastoral nomads but in the later 12th/18th century they began to take up agriculture. Their large financial and economic privileges were continued and extended in the reigns of Aḥmad S̲h̲āh and Tīmūr S̲h̲āh, when the Durrānī tribe formed the main pol…

Amān Allāh

(1,109 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M. E.
, Amīr of Afg̲h̲ānistan and the successor and third son of Habīb Allāh [ q.v.] by his chief wife, ʿUlyā Ḥaḍrat (d. 1965). He was born on 2 June 1892 in Pag̲h̲mān and educated at the Military Academy. Intelligent, energetic and hardworking, he was attracted to the nationalist and Islamic modernist ideas of Maḥmūd Ṭarzī (1866-1935), the editor of Sirād̲j̲ al-ak̲h̲bār , and in 1914 married Ṭarzī’s daughter, Soraya (T̲h̲urayyā) (d. 21 April 1968). At the time of his father’s murder on 20 February 1919, Amān Allāh, as Governor of Kābul, c…

Dūst Muḥammad

(800 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M.E.
, the real founder of Bārakzāy rule in Afg̲h̲ānistān, was the 20th son of Pāyinda K̲h̲ān, chief of the Bārakzāy clan under Tīmūr S̲h̲āh. After the execution of Pāyinda K̲h̲ān in the reign of Zamān S̲h̲āh, Dust Muḥammad was brought up by his Ḳi̊zi̊lbas̲h̲ mother’s relatives until he came under the care of the eldest brother, Fatḥ K̲h̲ān, who held considerable influence under Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh. In the second reign of Maḥmūd, Dūst Muḥammad held prominent offices including that of governor of Kūhistān, …

Muḥammad Dāwūd K̲h̲ān

(586 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M.E.
(1909-78) first president of Afg̲h̲ānistān. His father was Sardār Muḥammad ʿAzīz, the half-brother of Muḥammad Nādir S̲h̲āh. Dāwūd was educated at Amāniyya School, Kābul, and in France. In 1931 he entered the army, was created major-general in 1932 and from then until 1947 held various military commands and provincial governorships. In 1947 he became minister of defence in the government of his uncle, S̲h̲āh Maḥmūd, resigned and returned as minister of the interior, 1949-50. From 20 September 1953 un…