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Lacus Lucrinus

(140 words)

Author(s): de Vido, Stefania (Venice)
[German version] Brackish lagoon on the Campi Phlegraei, separated from the sea by a sandbar, on which Hercules is supposed to have built the via Herculanea (Str. 5,4,5f.). The lake was known for its wealth of fish. The later Augustus and Agrippa had the lacus Lucrinus (LL), together with lacus Avernus, converted into the portus Iulius (Plin. HN 36,125; Serv. Aen. 2,161). There were many famous villas on the LL (Cic. Att. 14,16), of which there are no remains due to volcanic eruptions and shifting shorelines (bradyseism); the lake, too, is now largely buried. de Vido, Stefania (Venice) Bibli…


(176 words)

Author(s): de Vido, Stefania (Venice) | de Vido
The original name, mostly replaced by the form Teanum, of two cities. [German version] [1] Municipium of the Marrucini This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Sole municipium of the Marrucini (Str. 5,4,2: Τεατά/ Teatá; Plin. HN 3,106: Teatini Marrucinorum) on the lower reaches of the Aternus on the Via Valeria, modern Chieti, successor to an earlier settlement at the foot of the Maiella mountains in the area of modern Rapino [1; 2]. de Vido, Stefania (Venice) [German version] [2] City in Apulia City in Apulia (Liv. 9,20,7: Teates Apuli; 9,20,4: ex Apulia Teanenses; cf. Cic. C…


(946 words)

Author(s): de Vido, Stefania (Venice)
[German version] A. Etymology O. ('Oscans') is the term for several Italian peoples united by their language. The term o bscum that is used to refer to them has been variously interpreted: as sacrum (Fest. 204,24; 205,1) or connected with obscenum (Tac. Ann. 4,14; Fest. 204,31; 218,14f.). The O. had previously been called Opsci (first mention: Enn. Ann. 296; Fest. 218,12) or Ophici, the latter because of the great occurrence of snakes (Greek óphis) particularly around Capua (Serv. Aen. 7,730; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὀπικοί; Opikoí). However, their name could also refer to a region in …


(271 words)

Author(s): de Vido, Stefania (Venice)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Villa | Etrusci, Etruria City (Plin. HN. 3,62; Ptol. 3,1,7: Σούρεντον/ Soúrenton) on a peninsula (modern Punta della Campanella;  Str. 5,4,8: Σειρηνουσσῶν ἀκρωτήριον/ Seirēnoussôn akrōtḗrion; Plin. HN 3,62; Ov. Met. 15,709: promunturium Minervae), separated from  Capreae (Capri) by a narrow stretch of sea (cf. Tac. Ann. 4,67,1; 6,1,1; Cass. Dio 52,43,2; Tab. Peut. 6,5), modern Sorrento. Settled by Greeks in the 6th cent. BC (Liber …


(128 words)

Author(s): de Vido, Stefania (Venice)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre City in Campania (Str. 5,4,11: Σουεσσοῦλα/ Souessoûla) between Capua and Nola (Liv. 7,37,4; 23,14,13; 23,32,2; 24,13,9; Plin. HN 3,64; Tab. Peut. 6,4), modern Piazza Vecchia near Acerra. In 343 BC the Samnites were here decisively defeated by the Romans (Liv. 7,37,4). In 338 BC the place became a civitas sine suffragio (Liv. 8,14,11; Fest. 262,11: praefectura). Because of its strategically favourable location, S. was a base for Roman troops several times during the Second Punic War (cf. Li…

Lacus Avernus

(206 words)

Author(s): de Vido, Stefania (Venice)
[German version] (Greek Ἄορνος, Áornos). Volcanic lake connected to the sea near Baiae ( Campi Phlegraei ), especially deep (Lycoph. 704; Diod. Sic. 4,22; Aristot. Mir. 102), sulphurous vapours (Verg. Aen. 6,242; Lucr. 6,744; Plin. HN 31,21; Serv. Aen. 3,442). The lacus Avernus (LA) owed its reputation above all to its connection with the Underworld. The Cimmerii were alleged to have lived here in deep holes (Str. 5,4,5); here Odysseus (Str. 5,4,5f.) and Aeneas (Verg. Aen. 3,442; 6,126; Ov. Met. 14,101ff.) entered the world of the dead, for which reason the LA was the Ianua Ditis ( Dis Pa…


(472 words)

Author(s): de Vido, Stefania (Venice)
[German version] Tribe on the south-eastern coast of Italy. It is encountered in ancient literature most commonly in the  Greek form of the name Peukétioi (Πευκέτιοι, cf. Str. 6,3,8; Cass. Dio 15,2,3; on the other hand however Πευκετεῖς/ Peuketeîs, Herodorus FGrH 31 F 29; Ποίδικλοι/ Poídikloi, Str. 6,3,1; 7; Poediculi, Plin. HN 3,38; 102; Steph. Byz. s.v. Χανδάνη: Πευκεταῖοι/ Peuketaîoi; Str. 6,3,8 considered the name to be Greek: he believes that it had probably been customary among the local population in ancient times but in his period it was obsolet…


(456 words)

Author(s): de Vido, Stefania (Venice) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] Tribe in the Central Italian Appenninus Tribe in the Central Italian Appenninus near Lacus Fucinus (Str. 5,2,1; Ptol. 3,1,57), regarded as brave and warlike (Str. 5,4,2; Plin. HN 3,106; Liv. 8,29,4; Verg. G. 2,167; cf. the etymological derivation from ‘Mars’). As descendants of a son of Circe they allegedly were immune to snake poison (Plin. HN 7,15; 21,78; 25,11; 28,30; Gell. NA 16,11,1; cf. Cic. Div. 1,132; 2,70; Hor. Epod. 17,29; Hor. Carm. 2,20,18). Characteristic of the M. was t…


(344 words)

Author(s): de Vido, Stefania (Venice)
[German version] Italian tribe in the Appennines midway along the river Aternus in the neighbourhood of the Vestini, Marrucini, Marsi [1] and Frentani (Str. 5,2,1; 5,3,4; 5,3,11; Liv. 9,19,4; 26,11,11). They inhabited a cold (Hor. Carm. 3,19,8; Ov. Tr. 4,10,3) and water-rich mountain region (Ov. Am. 2,1,1). Together with the Vestini they had access to the sea by means of the Aternus (Str. 5,4,2); moreover the coast around Hortona and the mouth of the Sarus (Ptol. 3,1,19) were also regarded as Pael…


(323 words)

Author(s): de Vido, Stefania (Venice)
[German version] (Δαυνία; Daunía). The region of D. roughly coincides with the northern part of today's Apulia; eventually incorporated into the regio II (Plin. HN 3,103), its extent however cannot be defined easily. In view of the importance of rivers for ancient geography, it can be assumed that the border in the north was the Fortore (Fertor in Ptol. 3,1,14), and the Ofanto ( Aufidus at Plin. HN 3,103-105) in the south (Hor. Sat. 2,1,34f.: at Venusia as a border city; cf. also Mela 2,66; Str. 6,3,8; Pol. 3,88). In contrast to the historically unimportant coastal ranges of the mons Garganus,…


(362 words)

Author(s): de Vido, Stefania (Venice)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Regio, regiones (Οὐενουσία/ Ouenousía). Township in the territory of the Samnites (Str. 5,4,11; 6,1,2; Hor. Sat. 2,1,35) in the valley of the middle reaches of the Aufidus in the border region between the Lucani and the Apuli (Hor. Sat. 2,1,35; Str. 6,3,6: between the Samnites and the Lucani; Apulian: Ptol. 3,1,73; Plin. HN 3,104), traversed by the Via Appia  (Str. 6,3,6; It. Ant. 113,1; 121,…


(180 words)

Author(s): de Vido, Stefania (Venice)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Παυσίλυπον; Pausílypon; literally 'Ending Pain'). Villa of P. Vedius [II 4] Pollio between Neapolis [2] and Puteoli (Plin. HN 3,82; 9,167). Once when Augustus was a guest there, his host determined to throw a slave to the moray eels in one of his fishponds for having broken a crystal goblet. Augustus pardoned the slave (Plin. HN 9,77; Cass. Dio 54,23,1ff.). After the owner's death in 15 BC, Augustus inherited the villa and had it managed by a procurator (Cass. Dio 54,23). Parts of the villa have survived along …