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“All That is Best of the Modern Woman”? Representations of Female Military Auxiliaries in British Popular Culture, 1914–1919

(11,249 words)

Author(s): Robert, Krisztina
Robert, Krisztina - “All That is Best of the Modern Woman”? Representations of Female Military Auxiliaries in British Popular Culture, 1914–1919 Keywords: British popular culture | conflicting representations | female military auxiliaries | First World War | military parades | military women | modern military discourses | wartime popular culture | wartime propaganda battle ISFWWS-Keywords: Britain | Women and War | Home fronts | Society | Gender | Politics | Legacy Abstract: In Britain during the First World War, members of the female auxiliary corps became th…

Volunteers, Auxiliaries, and Women’s Mobilization: The FirstWorld War and Beyond (1914–1939)

(18,792 words)

Author(s): Jensen, Kimberly
Jensen, Kimberly - Volunteers, Auxiliaries, and Women’s Mobilization: The FirstWorld War and Beyond (1914–1939) Keywords: Women and War | Masculinity | Society | Medicine | Home fronts | Gender | Experience of combat | Prisoners of War | Military organisation of combat | Legacy A Companion to Women’s Military History Barton C. Hacker and Margaret Vining , (2012) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2012 e-ISBN: 9789004206823 DOI: 10.1163/9789004206823_007 © 2012 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Jensen, Kimberly

‘Playing at being Soldiers’?: British Women and Military Uniform in the First World War

(10,127 words)

Author(s): Noakes, Lucy
Noakes, Lucy - ‘Playing at being Soldiers’?: British Women and Military Uniform in the First World War Keywords: British women | femininity | First World War | Marjorie Garber | military uniform | soldiering | Susan Grayzel ISFWWS-Keywords: Britain | Women and War | Home fronts | Politics | Masculinity | Gender | Society Abstract: The woman in military uniform threatens to destabilise both the femininity of the women who wear it and the naturalised linkage between soldiering and masculinity. As Marjorie Garber has argued, the “sight …

“German Women Help to Win!” Women and the German Military in the Age of World Wars

(11,862 words)

Author(s): Hagemann, Karen
Hagemann, Karen - “German Women Help to Win!” Women and the German Military in the Age of World Wars Keywords: Germany | Home fronts | Women and War | Economy | Legacy | Science, Technology, and Medicine | Military organisation of combat A Companion to Women’s Military History Barton C. Hacker and Margaret Vining , (2012) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2012 e-ISBN: 9789004206823 DOI: 10.1163/9789004206823_017 © 2012 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Hagemann, Karen

“The Spirit of Woman-Power”: Representation of Women in World War I Posters

(14,021 words)

Author(s): Prelinger, Elizabeth | Hacker, Barton C.
Prelinger, Elizabeth; Hacker, Barton C. - “The Spirit of Woman-Power”: Representation of Women in World War I Posters Keywords: Visual Arts | Gender | Home fronts | Politics | Science, Technology, and Medicine | Economy | Society | Women and War | Masculinity | Children and War A Companion to Women’s Military History Barton C. Hacker and Margaret Vining , (2012) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2012 e-ISBN: 9789004206823 DOI: 10.1163/9789004206823_016 © 2012 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Prelinger, Elizabeth and Hacker, Barton C.

Propaganda, Imperial Subjecthood and National Identity in Jamaica during the First World War

(9,614 words)

Author(s): Smith, Richard
Smith, Richard - Propaganda, Imperial Subjecthood and National Identity in Jamaica during the First World War ISFWWS-Keywords: The French and British Empires | Politics | Home fronts | Literature | Germany | Legacy | Published memoirs and biographies | Experience of combat World War I and Propaganda Troy R.E. Paddock , (2014) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2014 e-ISBN: 9789004264571 DOI: 10.1163/9789004264571_006 © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Smith, Richard

Introduction: Women’s Movements and Female Activists in the Aftermath of War: International Perspectives 1918-1923

(10,482 words)

Author(s): Sharp, Ingrid | Stibbe, Matthew
Sharp, Ingrid; Stibbe, Matthew - Introduction: Women’s Movements and Female Activists in the Aftermath of War: International Perspectives 1918-1923 Keywords: female activists | Joan Scott | political rights | women's contribution ISFWWS-Keywords: Women and War | General | Legacy | Politics | Gender | Home fronts Abstract: This chapter gives an account of the role played by organised women and female activists in the aftermath of war, and addresses the question identified by Joan Scott in her essay for the seminal volume Behind the Lines (1987), asking not simply what impact …

Who Provided Care for Wounded and Disabled Soldiers? Conceptualizing State-Civil Society Relationship in First World War Austria

(11,870 words)

Author(s): Hsia, Ke-chin
Hsia, Ke-chin - Who Provided Care for Wounded and Disabled Soldiers? Conceptualizing State-Civil Society Relationship in First World War Austria ISFWWS-Keywords: Austria-Hungary | Home fronts | Society | Science, Technology, and Medicine | Economy | Politics Other Fronts, Other Wars? Joachim Bürgschwentner, Matthias Egger and Gunda Barth-Scalmani , (2014) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2014 e-ISBN: 9789004279513 DOI: 10.1163/9789004279513_015 © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Hsia, Ke-chin

Elsa Brändström and the Reintegration of Returning Prisoners of War and their Families in Post-War Germany and Austria

(8,776 words)

Author(s): Stibbe, Matthew
Stibbe, Matthew - Elsa Brändström and the Reintegration of Returning Prisoners of War and their Families in Post-War Germany and Austria Keywords: Austrian society | Elsa Brändström | First World War | Germany | prisoners of war | women's activism ISFWWS-Keywords: Prisoners of War | Germany | Austria-Hungary | Russia | Scandinavia | Switzerland | The United States of America | Literature Abstract: Less is known about Elsa Brändström's contribution to the reintegration of returning POWs and their families in post-war German and Austrian society,…

Defending the Heimat: The Germans in South-West Africa and East Africa During the First World War

(12,890 words)

Author(s): Rouven Steinbach, Daniel
Rouven Steinbach, Daniel - Defending the Heimat: The Germans in South-West Africa and East Africa During the First World War Keywords: First World War | German East Africa | German Schutzgebiete | Heimat | South-West Africa ISFWWS-Keywords: Africa | East Africa | Germany | Society | Pre-war period | Culture | Home fronts Abstract: This chapter examines wartime mobilization of German settlers in Africa with particular reference to the German concept of Heimat. It focuses on the two German Schutzgebiete which had the largest white populations and that experienced the mo…

The Aftermaths of Defeat: The Fallen, the Catastrophe, and the Public Response of Women to the End of the First World War in Bulgaria

(8,095 words)

Author(s): Vukov, Nikolai
Vukov, Nikolai - The Aftermaths of Defeat: The Fallen, the Catastrophe, and the Public Response of Women to the End of the First World War in Bulgaria Keywords: Bulgarian public life | cultural demobilisation | female activists | post-war stabilisation | women movements ISFWWS-Keywords: Bulgaria | Women and War | Society | Politics | Gender | Home fronts | Economy | Pre-war period Abstract: This chapter seeks to examine the role of female activists and organised women's movements in Bulgarian public life after the war, focusing in particular on th…

Women Serving behind the Front

(530 words)

Author(s): Schönberger, Bianca
Women Serving behind the Front Women served as secretarial staff and catering personnel in the rear area and occupation zone, in order to release soldiers for frontline duty. More than 20,000 women auxiliaries worked behind the frontline in the German Army between April 1917 and November 1918, the majority of them on the Western Front. From 1917, women were also employed in the field in the armies of Great Britain (approx. 10,000), Austria-Hungary (approx. 36,000), and the United States (approx. 6,00…

Colored Troops

(587 words)

Author(s): Koller, Christian
Colored Troops German war propaganda described the nonwhite colonial troops employed by the Entente Powers in the First World War in general terms as “colored auxiliaries.” The very use of such units in Europe caused a considerable sensation. All in all, some 485,000 nonwhite soldiers from the French colonies and 160,000 from the British colonies fought in the ranks of the Entente Powers in the European theater. Important contingents came from Algeria (173,000), India (153,000), French West Africa…

Troop Strength

(1,120 words)

Author(s): Thoss, Bruno
Troop Strength The initial numbers of soldiers mobilized for immediate wartime service. The peacetime strength of the individual armies before 1914 provided the foundation for troop strength in the war. A cadre of commanders for reserve units and an attachment of reservists for these troop units were included in their mobilization plans. This would make it possible to raise units to wartime strength once the mobilization was begun. The troop strengths planned in the event of war, and the troop str…

North Africa

(2,498 words)

Author(s): Cornelissen, Christoph
North Africa Geographical area stretching from the Atlantic coast of present-day Morocco in the west to the Suez Canal and the Red Sea in the east. The territories in question experienced various phases of political and military subjugation by the European colonial powers before the outbreak of the First World War. The North African territories were subject to differing external and internal political arrangements, and were then administered under direct and indirect forms of rule. France claimed formal sovereignty in Al…

From a European War to World War

(3,650 words)

Author(s): Förster, Stig
From a European War to World War “This war will develop into a world war in which even England will engage. Only a few could form an idea of the beginning, the duration, and the end of this war. How this all should end, nobody can foresee today.”1 General Staff Chief Helmuth von Moltke confronted his adjutants with these words on the night of July 31, 1914, immediately before the outbreak of war, intimating that he regarded the approaching conflict as a world war from the very first. In his apprehension, Moltke in no wise stood alone. At lea…

Armed Forces (Austria-Hungary)

(3,011 words)

Author(s): Rauchensteiner, Manfried
Armed Forces (Austria-Hungary) The organization of the Austro-Hungarian Armed Forces during the First World War originated in the Compromise of 1867. Under this agreement the Habsburg Monarchy sported the outward appearance of a dual monarchy, yet internally there was minimal uniformity, and the merest balance of interests. The major weakness of the Compromise between the Kingdom of Hungary and the remainder of the Double Monarchy was the fact that the Slavs within Austria-Hungary, who had mainly s…

United States

(6,802 words)

Author(s): Schaffer, Ronald
United States When the European July crisis developed into a world war in 1914, the United States initially tried to avoid entering the war. The government under President Wilson urged the Americans to remain neutral – both in thoughts and in actions – the more so as the United States controlled important strategic locations in the Western Hemisphere, particularly the Panama Canal. At the same time, the government insisted on preserving the freedom of the seas, the freedom of its own overseas trad…

Neutrality Guard or Preparations for War? The Norwegian Armed Forces and the Coming of the Second World War

(11,610 words)

Author(s): Kristiansen, T.
Kristiansen, T. - Neutrality Guard or Preparations for War? The Norwegian Armed Forces and the Coming of the Second World War Keywords: neutrality guard | Norwegian armed forces | second world war Abstract: This chapter focuses on the rearmament period from 1937 to 1940. A salient feature in Norwegian war preparations was the urgency attached to the building up of a wide array of war provisions and the improvement of civilian infrastructure that could buttress the armed forces. The more specific issues that…

The Indian Army and Internal Security: 1919–1946

(13,561 words)

Author(s): Johnson, Rob
Johnson, Rob - The Indian Army and Internal Security: 1919–1946 Keywords: Amritsar | British internal security | civil power | First World War | Indian Army | inter-war years | Quit India campaign Abstract: This chapter seeks to illustrate how British and Indian troops were used in 'Aid of the Civil Power' and how British concerns about maintaining internal security paved the way for the abrupt ending of the Raj. The experience of the First World War had reinforced the possibility that the Indian Army would have to send expeditionary forces overseas to …
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