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(1,656 words)

Author(s): Auer, Blain
Shams al-Dīn Iltutmish (r. 607–33/1211–36) was a slave-soldier, variously referred to in the sources as mamlūk, ghulām, and banda, who played an influential role in the politics and military conquests of the sixth/twelfth and seventh/thirteenth centuries in North India. He rose in the service of Quṭb al-Dīn Aybak (r. 602–7/1206–10), the celebrated ghulām of the Ghūrid sultan Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Sām (r. 569–602/1173–1206) ruling from Ghazna, who is credited with laying the foundations of Delhi as a centre of Islamic power in South Asia. Iltu…
Date: 2018-07-12

Ḥamīd al-Dīn Qāḍī Nāgawrī

(832 words)

Author(s): Anjum, Tanvir
Muhammad b. ʿAṭā Allāh Maḥmūd (d. 643/1246), popularly known as Shaykh Ḥamīd al-Dīn Qāḍī Nāgawrī, was a renowned Ṣūfī scholar of mediaeval India, who was affiliated with both the Suhrawardī and Chishtī silsilas (spiritual lineage or initiatic genealogy) (the Suhrawadiyya is traditionally said to have been founded by Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar al-Suhrawardī (d. 632/1234) and spread quickly to the Middle East and as far as India and Indonesia; the Chishtiyya was founded in Chisht, a small town near Herat, about 318/930 by Abū Isḥāq Shāmī (t…
Date: 2018-07-12


(1,253 words)

Author(s): Ahmed, Asad Q.
Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad al-ʿUmarī al-Fārūqī al-Jawnpūrī (993–1072/1585–1652) was an Indian scholar known primarily for his contributions, in Arabic and Persian, to philosophy (falsafa), theology (kalām), and rhetoric (ʿilm al-maʿānī wa-l-bayān). He was born in Jawnpur, in Uttar Pradesh, at the very beginning of Mughal suzerainty in the region. Al-Jawnpūrī received his early training from his grandfather, Shāh Muḥammad al-Jawnpūrī (d. 1032/1622), with whom he studied various books in the emerging curriculum (Lakhnawī, 5:181, 429). He then studied the rationalist disciplines (maʿq…
Date: 2018-07-12

Dāgh Dihlavī, Navāb Mīrzā Khān

(2,581 words)

Author(s): Shafi, Muhammad | Farooqi, Mehr A.
Dāgh (lit., scar, stain, mark, sorrow) is the nom de plume (takhallus) of Navāb Mīrzā Khān Dihlavī, originally called Ibrāhīm, a pre-eminent modern Urdu poet. He was the son of Navāb Shams al-Dīn Khān of Jhirkā Firūzpūr—who belonged to the aristocratic Lohārū family, to which the great poet Ghālib (d. 1869) was also related by marriage—and Vazīr Begam (usually called Chhotʾī Begam). Navāb Mīrzā Khān was born in Chāndnī Chawk, Delhi, on 12 Dhū l-Ḥijja 1246/25 May 1831 (see his horoscope in Jalva-yi Dāgh, 9). In 1837, his father was hanged by the British and his property confisc…
Date: 2018-07-12


(8,571 words)

Author(s): O'Neal, Michael
The Ghūrids (or Shansabānīs) were a dynasty of independent Muslim rulers who conquered much of eastern Iran and northern India from the mid-sixth/twelfth century to the beginning of the seventh/thirteenth century. Arising from the mountains of present-day central Afghanistan, they established an immense empire that reshaped the political and cultural boundaries of the eastern Islamic lands and laid the foundations of the Delhi Sultanate. The Ghūrid territories west of the Indus were conquered by the Khvārazmshāhs shortly before the Mongol irruption. 1. Early Shansabānī history T…
Date: 2018-07-12