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Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn

(2,190 words)

Author(s): Salibi, Kamal
, nom de deux amīrs libanais de la maison druze de Maʿn [ q.v.]. Fak̲h̲r al-dīn Ier, amīr du S̲h̲ūf (au N.-E. de Sidon) au temps de la conquête de la Syrie par les Ottomans, fut un des chefs qui offrirent leur soumission à Damas en 922/ 1516 au sultan conquérant Selīm Ier. Le sultan, impressionné par son éloquence, l’aurait renvoyé avec le titre d’ amīr al-barr (seigneur de la terre), le reconnaissant ainsi comme suzerain des féodaux de la Montagne druze (le G̲h̲arb, le Ḏj̲urd et le S̲h̲ūf). Fak̲h̲r al-dīn Ier fut assassiné sur les ordres du pas̲h̲a de Damas; son fils Ḳorḳmaz lui succéda. Fak̲h̲r al…

Al-Madînah

(5,399 words)

Arabic text ¶ [2] In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful, whose help I solicit! The Prophet in al-Madînah Says Aḥmad ibn-Yaḥya ibn-Jâbir :— I have been informed by certain men learned in tradition, biography, and the conquest of the lands, whose narratives I transmitted, abridged and pieced up together into one whole, that when the Messenger of Allah emigrated from Makkah to al-Madînah he was entertained as the guest of Kalthûm ibn-Hidm ibn-Amru’i-l-Ḳais ibn-al-Ḥarîth ibn-Zaid ibn-‘Ubaid ibn-Umaiyah ibn-Za…

The Wells of Makkah

(1,299 words)

Arabic text ¶ [48c] Before Ḳuṣai brought Ḳuraish together, and before they entered Makkah, they used for drinking purposes reservoirs, rain-water tanks on mountain tops, a well called al-Yusairah dug by Lu’ai ibn-Ghâlib outside the Ḥaram and another well called ar-Rawa dug by Murrah ibn-Ka‘b and which lay just beyond ‘Arafah. Later, Kilâb ibn-Murrah1 dug outside of Makkah three wells Khumm, Rumm and Jafr; and Ḳuṣai ibn-Kilâb dug another which he called al-‘Ajûl and prepared a drinking place in connection with it.2 After the death of Ḳuṣai a certain man of the banu-Naṣr ibn-Mu…

Tinmal

(1,273 words)

Author(s): Ferhat, Halima
, ou Tinmallal, nom berbère qui désigne les terrasses de culture en montagne, mais plusieurs autres étymologies ont été avancées. Le village de Tinmal fut le foyer de l’expansion almohade. Il est situé sur un haut plateau qui domine la vallée du Nfīs dans le Haut Atlas marocain, sur la route du col du Tizin-Test. Entouré de hauts sommets (autour de 3000 m), il est difficilement accessible. Un relief accidenté, des sentiers étroits et abrupts rendent le site inexpugnable. Au Moyen Âge Tinmal désign…