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(1,341 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
Etymology 1. ‘Millenarianism’ is derived from the Latin mille (‘thousand’) and annus (‘year’), and denotes the expectation of a ‘thousand-year reign.’ ‘Chiliasm,’ with the same meaning, is derived from the Greek chílioi (‘thousand’). The original theological concept was taken over from other disciplines, and bound up with various kinds of expectations of ‘end and revolution’ in religious and social movements. Millenarianism as a Christian Expectation of the End 2. In the history of Christianity, millenarianism can be understood in terms of Rev 20:2,7, as the exp…


(1,791 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
Determination of the Concept 1. ‘Pietism’ (from Lat. pietas, ‘devotion’) is an umbrella concept for intra-church devotional and renewal movements in → Protestantism. It especially denotes a movement of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Germany and certain neighboring countries. Its aim was a religious interiorization of the → Reformation achievements, and their translation into practical living (‘tätiges Christsein’ [Ger., ‘active being-a-Christian’], praxis pietatis [Lat., ‘practice of piety’). Connected to this was a criticism of prevailing eccl…


(353 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
‘Spirituality’ is a fashionable word, used in contemporary religious discourse for a spiritual attitude toward life, a style of piety. It occurs in the Christian and the non-Christian areas alike. This diffuse application is connected with a twin history. From the French ( spiritualité), the word has been taken over into other languages, especially so since the 1960s, by Catholic theologians, who wished to describe certain forms of piety actively lived: from a contemplative monastic life (for laity, as well, who occasionally share this l…


(2,685 words)

Author(s): Dehn, Ulrich | Bochinger, Christoph | Thiede, Werner | Thiele, Christoph
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Both the etymology and the usage of the word sect are disputed. Derivation from Latin secare (“separate”) is possible, as is derivation from secta (from sectus, sequi, “school of thought”). English uses the word in the latter neutral sense, whereas the German equivalent Sekte is usually a pejorative exonym, corresponding to Eng. cult. M. Weber (see II below) distinguished between voluntary membership “of those who are religiously and morally qualified” in exclusive sects, in contrast to compulsory membership in the church as a Gnadenanstalt (“i…


(1,371 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph | Mette, Norbert | Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term socialization is used in various academic fields, especially sociology, (social) psychology, and the educational disciplines (Education, Theory of ). Already used by É. Durkheim in 1907, it experienced a wave of popularity in the 1960s and again in the 1980s. Initially it emphasized the formation of individuals by society; recently it has focused more on the interaction between individuals’ own activity and outside influences and between individuation and …


(347 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
[German Version] denotes the individual, subjective aspect of the religious – as contrasted with religion in the sense of something objectively given, with professional theologies, dogmas, and doctrines, or religious institutions, churches, and religious communities. Its semantic structure was developed from the late 18th century onward in the context of German Enlightenment philosophy, Idealism, and Romanticism (I.H. Fichte, G.W.F. Hegel, J.G. Herder, F.D.E. Schleiermacher). The main interest foc…

Confession (of Faith)

(12,201 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph | Kreuzer, Siegfried | Reumann, John | Staats, Reinhart | Holze, Heinrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Bible – III. Church History – IV. Systematics – V. Practical Theology – VI. Law – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. History of Religions The term confession refers to various phenomena, including the confession of faith and of sin. A confession of faith can be understood as an officially sanctioned, formulaic summary of the central doctrines of a religious or a confessional community (“denomination”). Recited in cultic procedures and/or in everyday piety, i…

Callenberg, Johann Heinrich

(220 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
[German Version] (Jan 12, 1694, Molschleben near Gotha – Jul 16, 1760, Halle on the Saale). From humble origins, Callenberg was given a pietistic upbringing at the Gotha Gymnasium under G. Vockerodt. He began studying oriental languages and theology at Halle on the Saale in 1715. In the 1720s, he was commissioned by A.H. Francke to author a multivolume church history, in which he gave particular attention to the historical background of Pietism (manuscript…

Gutmann, Bruno

(309 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
[German Version] (Jul 4, 1876, Dresden – Dec 17, 1966, Ehingen). Of humble rural background, Gutmann studied at the seminary of the Leipzig Mission from 1895 to 1902. He spent the years 1902–1920 and, with interruptions, 1926–1938 as a missionary in the Kilimanjaro area in Tanganyika, from 1910 onward in Old Moshi among the Chagga. Parallel to his theological studies, he devoted himself to ethnology and later entertained close contacts with Felix Krueger's school of ¶ holistic psychology in Leipzig. Through his meticulous documentation of the culture and “tribal teachin…

Bachmann, Traugott

(349 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
[German Version] (Aug 25, 1865, Caana bei Niesky, Oberlausitz – Feb 27, 1948, Niesky). Of rural background, Bachmann attended the missionary school of the Bohemian/Moravian Brethren (II) in Niesky from 1890 to 1892, joining the order in 1891. From 1892 to 1916, he was active as a missionary in the Moravian mission territory in German East Africa, …


(1,301 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph | Mette, Norbert | Schweitzer, Friedrich
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Der Begriff »S.« wird in unterschiedlichen wiss. Kontexten, v.a. in der Soziologie, (Sozial-) Psychologie und den Erziehungswiss. (Pädagogik), verwendet. Bereits 1907 von É.  Durkheim gebraucht, erlebte er in den 60er Jahren eine erste, in den 80er Jahren eine zweite Phase starker Rezeption. Während zunächst v.a. die Prägung der Individuen durch die Gesellschaft im Vordergrund stand, ist in jüngerer Zeit überwiegend von der Wechselwirkung zw. Eigenakti…


(317 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
[English Version] . Der Begriff »R.« bez. die individuelle, subjektive Seite des Religiösen – im Unterschied zu »Religion« als einem objektiv Gegebenen, zu professionellen Theologien, Dogmen und Lehrmeinungen oder zu rel. Institutionen, Kirchen und Religionsgemeinschaften. Die Bedeutungsstruktur wurde seit dem späten 18.Jh. in der dt. Aufklärungsphilos., im Idealismus und in der Romantik geprägt (I.H. Fichte, G.W. F. Hegel, J.G. Herder, F. Schleiermacher). Im Zentrum stand der Versuch, hinter den …


(2,411 words)

Author(s): Dehn, Ulrich | Bochinger, Christoph | Thiede, Werner | Thiele, Christoph
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Nicht nur die philol. Herleitung, auch der Gebrauch des Wortes S. selbst ist umstritten. Die Herkunft von secare (»abspalten«) ist denkbar, ebenso die von secta (von sectus, sequi, »Schulrichtung«). Im letzteren wertneutralen Sinne wird »sect« im Englischen verwendet, während dem dt. (pejorativen) »S.« meist der engl. »cult« als polemische Fremdbez. entspricht. Max Weber (s.u. II.) unterschied zw. Freiwilligkeit, Exklusivität und »rel.-ethischer Qualif…