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Philosophical Theology

(1,305 words)

Author(s): Brümmer, Vincent
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion Philosophy of religion may be defined as the philosophical discipline in which generally accepted methods of philosophical argument and critical analysis are applied to conceptual problems that arise both in religious theory and practice, and in secular views of life. The latter can take over the role of religion as conceptual framework, because in both, meaning and significance are ascribed to life (V) and experience (II). Philosophica…

Prayer

(13,283 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Reventlow, Henning Graf | Gebauer, Roland | Förster, Niclas | Wallmann, Johannes | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Prayer is one of the most frequent and important religious acts in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It also appears in other religions – for example the indigenous religions of America. But it does not appear to be universal. Some Buddhist traditions, for example, are atheistic, and in them there is no prayer in the strict sense; these traditions often allow their adherents to pray to gods (e.g. Hindu gods), but they value the goals of such prayer less than enl…

God

(23,549 words)

Author(s): Zinser, Hartmut | Kaiser, Otto | Lindemann, Andreas | Brümmer, Vincent | Schwöbel, Christoph | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Philosophy of Religion – V. Dogmatics – VI. Practical Theology – VII. Missiology – VIII. Art – IX. Judaism – X. Islam I. Religious Studies 1. It is fundamentally true that God is not an object of religious studies, since God – as theology teaches – cannot be made an object of empirical scientific study. Religious studies can only address the concepts that human beings have expressed concerning their God (or gods: God, Representations and symbols of) in history and society, along with such phenomena as cultic worship, and the implications of these concepts as they shape human lives individually and collectively. When the study of religion deals with God per se, it oversteps the limits of a secular science and turns itself into theology or even a cryptotheology lacking the requirements of any theology – subjectively faith and revelation, objectively association with a social reality like the church. These observations do not address the question whether a god (or gods) exists apart from the concepts of his followers; the study of religion can neither prove nor refute an existence of God independent of the concepts of his followers. Such proposed …

Divine Attributes

(4,975 words)

Author(s): Gantke, Wolfgang | Brümmer, Vincent | Schmidt, Werner H. | Klauck, Hans-Josef | Amir, Yehoyada | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Bible – IV. Judaism – V. Christianity – VI. Islam I. Religious Studies In the context of rational Christian metaphysics, the knowability of God is assumed and God-talk is substantiated in such a way that certain attributes, such as holiness (Sacred and profane: V), eternity, …

Philosophische Theologie

(1,242 words)

Author(s): Brümmer, Vincent
[English Version] I. Religionsphilosophisch Religionsphilosophie kann als diejenige philos. Disziplin definiert werden, in der allg. akzeptierte Methoden der philos. Argumentation und krit. Analyse auf begriffliche Probleme angewendet werden, die sowohl in der rel. Theorie und Praxis als auch in weltl. Lebensanschauungen auftreten. Letztere können die Rolle der Rel. als Rahmenkonzept übernehmen, weil in beiden dem Leben (: V.) und der Erfahrung (: II.) Bedeutung und Bedeutsamkeit beigemessen werden…