Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm" )' returned 167 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Atheismus

(1,911 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Sparn, Walter
1. BegriffA. (von griech. átheos, »ohne Gott«, »gottlos«) bezeichnet einerseits in komplexer Vielfalt Weltdeutungen und Lebensentwürfe, welche durch die bewusste Ablehnung der Existenz eines oder mehrerer Götter, transzendenter Wesen oder Mächte geprägt sind (positiver A.), andererseits die bewusste Verneinung der irdischen Wirksamkeit solcher Götter oder Mächte bei gleichzeitiger Anerkennung der theoretischen Möglichkeit ihrer Existenz (negativer A.). Weil jedoch Ausdrücke wie Gott, Schöpfer, Absolutes, höchstes Wesen, Ursprung alles Seienden, letztes Pr…
Date: 2019-11-19

Protestantismus

(2,377 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Sparn, Walter
1. Begriff und historischer KontextDer dt. Kollektivsingular P. kam erst im 18. Jh. auf, während das engl. und das franz. Wort ( protestantism, protestantisme) schon im 16. Jh. gebräuchlich wurden. Aber auch P. bezieht sich auf die reformatorischen Protest- und Reformbewegungen des 16. Jh.s und bezeichnet alle christl. Kirchen, Freikirchen und Gruppen, die daraus hervorgegangen sind und sich meist auf die Reformatoren Martin Luther, Philipp Melanchthon, Martin Butzer, Ulrich Zwingli und Johannes Calvin berufen (Reformation 2.). Der Begriff betont das den Konfessionen (Luther…
Date: 2020-11-18

Entzauberung der Welt

(715 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
In die Sprachen der modernen Kulturwissenschaften hat der seit dem 18. Jh. nachweisbare Begriff der E. v. a. durch Max Weber Eingang gefunden. Im berühmten Aufsatz Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus sprach der Heidelberger Gelehrte 1904/05 vom »großen religionsgeschichtlichen Prozeß der E. der Welt«, der in der altjüd. Prophetie eingesetzt und in der harten innerweltlichen Askese des Puritanismus kulminiert habe. Alle magischen Mittel der Heilssuche seien hier als Aberglaube und Frevel verworfen worden [1]; [3].Den typologischen Kontrast von Askes…
Date: 2019-11-19

Säkularisierung

(5,956 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
1. Problemanzeige 1.1. BegriffDer Begriff S. (»Verweltlichung«, von lat. saeculum, »Zeit«, »Zeitalter«; kirchenlat. »Welt«) ist jünger und weniger eindeutig als der kirchen- und der staatsrechtliche Begriff der Säkularisation. Seit seinem Auftauchen in der dt. aufklärungskritischen Publizistik des frühen 19. Jh.s (Gegenaufklärung), d. h. im Streit um die Deutung der relig.-kulturellen Gesamtlage nach der Französischen Revolution, handelt es sich stets um eine »Interpretationskategorie« [53]; [43]; [8], um einen strittigen »ideenpolit. Begriff« [30]. Sein Verstän…
Date: 2019-11-19

Dechristianisierung

(690 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
Der dt. Begriff der D. entstand im späten 18. Jh. im Kontext religionspolitischer Debatten über die Französische Revolution. Dort wurde déchristianisation als Kampfbegriff zur Bezeichnung zunächst spontaner gewalttätiger Aktionen kleinbürgerlicher Gruppen gegen die Römisch-katholische Kirche und ihren Klerus, für den Raub von Kirchengut sowie die Verwüstung von Kirchen, anderen kirchlichen Gebäuden und Kunstschätzen verwendet (Ikonoklasmus). Anhänger der Revolution gebrauchten den Begriff außerdem sowohl zur Beschreibung des Bruchs mit kirchlicher Tr…
Date: 2019-11-19

Autonomie

(2,555 words)

Author(s): Lehmann-Brauns, Sicco | Hofer, Sibylle | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
Der Begriff der A. (vom v. a. in politischen Zusammenhängen verwendeten griech. Begriff autonomía, »Selbstgesetzlichkeit«, »Selbständigkeit«), dessen erstmalige dt. Verwendung auf die konfessionellen und verfassungspolitischen Auseinandersetzungen im Anschluss an den Augsburger Religionsfrieden (1555) zurückgeht [3], erlangte seine verschiedenen Bedeutungsebenen im Kontext der nzl. Philosophie-, Rechts- und Religionsgeschichte. Als Rechtsbegriff bedeutete er zunächst Freiheit vor staatsgewaltlichem Zugriff, bes. nach 1648. Von …
Date: 2019-11-19

Entkirchlichung

(670 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
Der Begriff E. wurde spätestens im frühen 19. Jh. geprägt. Im Kontext eines breiten Diskurses über die religionspraktischen Folgen der Aufklärung, der radikalen Katholizismus- und Kirchenkritik der Französischen Revolution sowie der Formierung einer neuen bürgerlichen Öffentlichkeit stritten europ. Gelehrte um 1800 intensiv über die Frage, ob der alte Kirchenglaube in der erhofften »neuen Welt« von bürgerlicher Freiheit, Brüderlichkeit und Gleichheit des Rechts noch Bestand haben könne. Eine zentrale Rolle nahmen dabei die Auseinandersetzungen um das 1788 für Preußen er…
Date: 2019-11-19

Antiklerikalismus

(946 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
1. Mittelalter und Frühe NeuzeitSchon im MA und in der Frühen Nz. lässt sich sowohl bei den gebildeten Ständen als auch in den diversen Sozialgruppen des »gemeinen Volkes« harte Kritik an den Klerikern beobachten (Geistliche). Aus religiösen Gründen, um des wahren Glaubens willen, warf man den »Mönchen« und »Pfaffen« Doppelmoral, Herrschsucht, Habgier und Wollust vor. Der Reichtum zahlreicher Klöster, das von Nahrungssorge unberührte, nicht steuerpflichtige, daher vergleichsweise bequeme und nicht selten luxuriöse Leben vieler…
Date: 2019-11-19

Fundamentalismus

(1,225 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Sparn, Walter
1. BegriffF. ist ein Begriff aus der Zeit der nordamerikan. Religionskämpfe des frühen 20. Jh.s. Für die Nz. hat er insoweit Bedeutung, als die Erschließung von spätmodernen Religionskonflikten dazu beitragen kann, die für die nzl. Gesellschaften Europas typischen religiösen Auseinandersetzungen, konfessionellen Antagonismen und dogmatischen Kontroversen über religiöse Identitäts-Konstruktionen neu zu verstehen.Der Begriff F. wurde im Kontext der religionspolitischen Kämpfe zwischen konkurrierenden Gruppen im Protestantismus der USA um 1920 gebildet. Zunehme…
Date: 2019-11-19

Debate on Essence

(3,328 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
The debates on essence are classified as the discussions held at the beginning of the 20th century, both on the Christian and the Jewish sides, concerning the fundamental questions of the "essence" of each confession. Triggered by lectures of the theologian Adolf von Harnack on  Das Wesen des Christentums  (“The Essence of Christianity”), the critique published in 1905 by the liberal rabbi Leo Baeck, Das Wesen des Judentums ("The Essence of Judaism", 1936), ranked as one of the most important contributions to the debate on essence. In the disputes on the politi…
Date: 2018-11-16

Wesensdebatte

(2,949 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
Als Wesensdebatte gelten die zu Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts sowohl auf christlicher als auch auf jüdischer Seite geführten Diskussionen um grundsätzliche Fragen des »Wesens« der jeweiligen Konfession. Ausgelöst durch die Vorlesungen des Theologen Adolf von Harnack über Das Wesen des Christentums, zählte die 1905 veröffentlichte Kritik Das Wesen des Judentums des liberalen Rabbiners Leo Baeck zu den gewichtigsten Beiträgen der Wesensdebatte. In den ideenpolitischen Auseinandersetzungen über die Bedeutung der christlichen und der jüdischen Trad…

Disenchantment of the world

(812 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
The term disenchantment, documented from the 18th century, came into the languages of the modern science of culture through Max Weber in particular. In the famous essay, “Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus” (“The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism”) the Heidelberg scholar spoke in 1904/05 of the “great religio-historical process of disenchantment of the world,” which had begun in ancient Jewish prophecy and had culminated in the hard, this-worldly asceticism of P…
Date: 2019-10-14

Secularization

(6,702 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
1. The problem 1.1. TerminologyThe verb “secularize” is first attested in English in the early 17th century in the sense of “put [church property] to profane use,” the derivative noun  secularization in 1706. This sense, which derives from canon law ( saecularisatio, from saecularis, “of this age”, “worldly,” “pagan”), predates a broader sense of “dissociation from religious concerns,” the shades of which are captured in a larger lexical field in German.The first distinction in German is between  Säkularisation, which in the canon-law and constitutional tradition denote…
Date: 2021-08-02

Atheism

(2,127 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Sparn, Walter
1. Terminology The word atheism (from Greek átheos, “without  God”, “godless”) denotes both a complex variety of interpretations of the world and life-designs shaped by conscious rejection of the existence of one or more gods, transcendent beings, or powers (positive atheism) and a conscious denial of the earthly influence of such gods or powers, while simultaneously recognizing the theoretical possibility of their existence (negative atheism). Terms such as “God,” “creator,” “absolute,” “supreme being…
Date: 2019-10-14

Protestantism

(2,626 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Sparn, Walter
1. The term and its historical contextThe collective singular noun Protestantism and its French equivalent  protestantisme were already in use in the 16th century; the German  Protestantismus did not come into use until the 18th century. The term refers to the protest and reform movements of the 16th-century Reformation and denotes all the Christian churches, free churches, and groups that emerged from it, most of which appealed to the Reformers Martin Luther, Philipp Melanchthon, Martin Bucer, Huldrych Zwingli, and Jo…
Date: 2021-03-15

Secularization, church

(823 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
One consequence of the general secularization underway in the late 18th and 19th centuries was a process that in German came to be known around 1800 as  Entkirchlichung (approx. “dechurching”), and that may be characterized as a secularization of and within the churches themselves.Around the year 1800, European scholars were engaged in intensive debate, as part of a broad discourse on the practical religious consequences of the Enlightenment, the radical anti-Catholicism and anti-clericalism of the French Revolution (1789), and the for…
Date: 2021-08-02

Fundamentalism

(1,342 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Sparn, Walter
1. The term The term  fundamentalism is a product of the religious conflicts in North American during the early 20th century. It is relevant to the early modern period because the exploration of late modern religious conflicts can contribute to a better understanding of the religious conflicts, confessional antagonists, and theological controversies over the construction of religious identity typical of Eurpean societies in the early modern period.The term was coined around 1920 in the context of the religio-political conflicts between competing groups with…
Date: 2019-10-14

Dechristianization

(748 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
The term déchristianisation (German  Dechristianisierung) emerged in the late 18th century in the context of religious and political debates on the French Revolution (1789). It came into use there as a slogan denoting the initially spontaneous violence of groups of petite bourgeoisie against the Roman Catholic Church and its clergy, the sacking of church property, and the pillaging of churches, other ecclesiastical buildings, and art treasures (Iconoclasm). Supporters of the Revolution also used th…
Date: 2019-10-14

Autonomy

(2,788 words)

Author(s): Lehmann-Brauns, Sicco | Hofer, Sibylle | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
The term autonomy (from Greek autonomía, “self-determination, independence”) appeared for the first time in German (as Autonomie) in the context of the confessional and constitutional disputes following the Peace of Augsburg (1555) [3]. Its earliest use in English (with reference to states) dates from the 1620s. It arrived at its various semantic levels in the history of philosophy, law, and religion during the early modern period. As a legal term, it initially meant freedom from interference by the authority of the state, esp…
Date: 2019-10-14

Anticlericalism

(1,049 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
1. Middle Ages and early modern period In the Middle Ages and the early modern period, we already find harsh criticism of the clergy among both the educated classes and the various social groups of the “common people.” On religious grounds, for the sake of the true faith, the “monks” and “priests” were accused of a double moral standard, high-handedness, greed, and concupiscence. The wealth of many monasteries, the relatively comfortable and often luxurious lifestyles of many occupants of benefices , w…
Date: 2019-10-14

Piper, Otto Alfred

(299 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Nov 29, 1891, Lichte, Thuringia – Feb 13, 1982, Princeton, USA). Piper’s mother, descended from French Huguenots, provided contacts with France that helped to shape his life. A forerunner of the youth movement, he expressed that generation’s typical criticism of capitalism and individualism. He was severely traumatized by voluntary service at the front, and in 1920, having gained his doctorate in Göttingen, he became a socialist advocate of pacifism and ecumenism ¶ (Ecumene). He rejected the identification of faith and politics made by Religious Soci…

Cremer, August Hermann

(773 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Oct 18, 1834, Unna – Oct 4, 1903, Greifswald), Protestant theologian. A graduate of the Gütersloh Protestant Gymnasium, from simple origins and shaped by the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements), he studied in Halle from 1853 with F.A.G. Tholuck and Julius Müller and in Tübingen from 1856 with J.T. Beck. Here he established a close friendship with M. Kähler. After a brief stay at the Wittenberg Seminary for Preachers, Cremer received the Lic.Theol. on the basis of his Die eschatologische Rede Jesu Christi Matthäi 24.25 (“The Eschatological Discou…

Tittmann, Johann August Heinrich

(259 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Aug 1, 1773, Langensalza – Dec 30, 1831, Leipzig). Tittmann’s father, Karl Christian Tittmann, later became chief consistorial councilor in Dresden. Tittmann studied philosophy and Protestant theology at Wittenberg and Leipzig, where in 1796 he was appointed associate professor, initially in the faculty of philosophy, then (1800) in the faculty of theology; in 1805 he was appointed full professor of theology. He was appointed to a number of church offices (a capitulary of Meißen …

Hausrath, Adolf

(392 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jan 13, 1837, Karlsruhe – Aug 2, 1909, Heidelberg), a Protestant church historian. The son of a prominent pastor from Baden, Hausrath studied Protestant theology and history from 1856 onward in liberal Jena, where K.A. v. Hase became his teacher and close friend. Following study visits to Göttingen, Berlin, and Heidelberg, Hausrath earned his Lic.theol. in Berlin with a study entitled Der Ketzermeister Konrad von Marburg (1861). After completing his curacy, he gained his Habilitation in Heidelberg in 1862 and was employed as an assessor in the…

Eucken, Rudolf Christoph

(384 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jan 5, 1846, Aurich – Sep 15, 1926, Jena), a fashionable philosopher of cultural Protestantism, studied classical philology and philosophy at Göttingen with R.H. Lotze and Gustav Teichmüller (1832–1888) from 1863 to 1867. While writing his dissertation on Aristotle's language, he corresponded with F.A. Trendelenburg. From 1871 to 1874 he …

Nation

(936 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The Latin word natio (from nasci, “be born”) denotes the place of origin of a person or thing. Natio was the goddess of birth. The Latin word also meant a tribe or people. Since the Middle Ages, nation (or natio) has had a wide range of heterogeneous meanings. The medieval nationes of universities, councils, merchants, clerics, and nobility were not precursors of modern ideas of a nation, although clerics and landed nobility in the late Middle Ages developed notions of a German national consciousness or sense of a German Reich. Formulas using the word natio and references …

Krüger, Gustav

(181 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jun 29, 1862, Bremen – Mar 13, 1940, Gießen), Protestant church historian. He studied in history, philosophy, and theology in Heidelberg, Jena, Gießen, and Göttingen. He was awarded a Dr.theol. in Jena (1884) and a Lic.theol. in Gießen (1886), where he became associate professor for church history in 1889 and full professor in 1891. Deeply rooted in the education-oriented cultural Protestantism of the prewar period, the “social aristocrat” Krüger edited the Handbuch der Kirchengeschichte für Studierende (1909–1912, 21923–1932), and the Theologischer Jahresbe…

Secularization

(7,317 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael | Lehmann, Hartmut | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Mathisen, James A. | de Wall, Heinrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In the 1960s, religious studies began to discuss the continuing decline of religious commitment in Europe intensively. In particular the writings of Bryan Wilson ( Religion in a Secular Society, 1966) and Peter L. Berger ( The Sacred Canopy, 1967), drawing on the ideas of M. Weber, É. Durkheim, and others led to formulation of a so-called theory of secularization, where secularization denotes a natural aspect of the process of modernization, in which the traditional religious legitimation of the world has increasingly lost…

Nowak, Kurt

(341 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Oct 28, 1942, Leipzig – Dec 31, 2001, Leipzig). Nowak gained his Abitur in 1961; he refused military service, and after working in the Leipzig city theater, and then with the Leipzig theater company, began to study theology in 1964. With a church history dissertation on “Euthanasia and Sterilization in the Third Reich,” a German studies dissertation under Claus Träger on Schleiermacher (1984), and a further dissertation on “The Protestant Church and the WeimarRepublic,” he gained a high repu…

Cultural Protestantism

(913 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] Despite intensive historical research, the origins of the term cultural Protestantism have been identified only in broad outline. Originally it was not a self-designation but a polemical term used by others, reflecting the florescence of cultural semantics (Culture: II) in the late 19th and early 20th century. In all European societies, the widespread sense of a crisis of modernity, the cultural pessimism rife among the bourgeoisie, and the relat…

Revolution

(3,474 words)

Author(s): Stroh, Ralf | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Amjad-Ali, Charles
[German Version] I. Concept The term revolution (from Lat. revolvere, “turn over”) denotes a sudden qualitative change of existing circumstances and processes, a change that does not just affect individual elements – like the replacement of government personnel in a coup – but brings change of the overall system. The term was used originally in astronomy for the orbit of a heavenly body. Since the early modern era, has been used to refer to changes that overturn the political system, but this definition …

Journals, Religious

(4,530 words)

Author(s): Hübinger, Gangolf | Mürmel, Heinz | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Felmy, Karl Christian | Schwarz, Johannes Valentin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religio-Cultural Journals – II. Journals of Religious Studies – III. Christianity – IV. Judaism – V. Islam I. Religio-Cultural Journals During the second half of the 19th century, the publication of German-language journals experienced a tremendous upsurge. While the year 1890 saw the publication of 3,203 individual titles, the number had grown to 5,231 by the year 1900 and to 6,689 by 1914. Journals became the preferred medium in academia and culture. In the field of theology, the proportion …

Lichtfreunde

(573 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Friends of Light). Lichtfreunde was the name given to the “Protestantische Freunde,” an association of rationalistic early liberal Protestant clergy and laity in Saxony and Prussia organized in 1841. The term, borrowed from Freemasonry, was originally used for adherents of the Enlightenment in general; by the time journals bearing this name were established in Saxony (1831) and Frankfurt am Main (1836), it was serving as a programmatic label for consistent support of the Enlightenme…

Religious Economics

(274 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] While studying the ecumenical movements of the 20th century, the sociologist Peter L. Berger developed “A Market Model for the Analysis of Ecumenicity” (1963). His theory stated that a termination of confessional culture clashes and processes of ecumenical cooperation between traditionally rivaling confessional churches followed goal-oriented and pragmatic partisan calculations, among others. Inspired by the Neoliberal Chicago School of Economics, religious economists such as Roge…

Radicalism, Social

(605 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The expression “social radicalism” is used in everyday language, in the technical terminology of various academic disciplines, and in political discourse. In German political terminology it is first attested in the ideological debates of the Vormärz (I) and the closely related religious party conflicts. At that time, 18th-century British and French discourse had a decisive influence. In Britain, from c. 1740 all political programs were described as radical that wished to make far-…

Vischer, Friedrich Theodor

(233 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (ennobled in 1870; Jun 30, 1807, Ludwigsburg – Sep 14, 1887, Gmunden), the son of a clergyman, a student of F.C. Baur, and ¶ a youthful friend and intermittent supporter of D.F. Strauß, studied Protestant theology, philosophy, and philology at Tübingen (Dr.theol. 1832; lecturer at the Tübingen Stift 1833). In 1836 he gained his habilitation there in aesthetics and German literature. As a professor of literary history (1844 Tübingen, suspended for two years on suspicion of “pantheism”; 1855 Zürich, 1866 S…

National Theology

(454 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The expression völkische Theologie(“national theology”) emerged in Germany around 1880 at the latest; its genesis and intellectual contexts have scarcely been explored. Nor are there studies of possible equivalents in other European languages. In terms of the sociology of knowledge, national theology can be interpreted as a specifically modern ideology of emancipation or as a liberation theology. relating to a people or nation (People and nationhood) acting collectively. Notwithstand…

National Socialism

(8,676 words)

Author(s): Nicolaisen, Carsten | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] I. History and Church History 1. Historical and political context. National Socialism as a political movement was born in Munich in 1919 with the founding of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi Party) appealing to a nationalistic and anti-Semitic lower middle class. Under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, it soon gained a following among almost all social strata in Germany. It became a political force to be reckoned with in 1930, when the worldwide economic crisis of 1929 furth…

Modern Times

(4,825 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Puster, Rolf W. | Gräb, Wilhelm
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Philosophy – III. Practical Theology I. Church History 1. The German term Neuzeit, which first appeared in church historiography around 1870, and which corresponds to the English term “modern times,” encompasses a broad spectrum of heterogeneous meanings. Terms such as tempus novum, historia nova, or neue Zeit (“new times”) – in contrast to the Middle Ages (I) – were coined in the 17th century to express experiences, both fascinating and frightening, of accelerated change in many areas of life along with…

Krummacher

(324 words)

Author(s): Maser, Peter | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] 1. Friedrich Adolf (Jul 13, 1767, Tecklenburg – Apr 4, 1845, Bremen), Reformed theologian. After working as a schoolteacher in Westphalia, Krummacher became professor of rhetoric in Duisburg in 1800, pastor in Kettwig an der Ruhr in 1807, general superintendent of Anhalt-Bernburg in 1812, and pastor in Bremen in 1824. Close to the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements), and a supporter of the union of churches (Unions, Church: I), Krummacher was active above all as a religious author ( Parabeln, 81848). Peter Maser Bibliography A.W. Möller, Friedrich Adolf K…

Political Religion

(927 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The origins of the expression political religion, analogous to political theology, are obscure. Probably it was a neologism born in the “saddle period” of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. K.G. Bretschneider used the concept to analyze the system of mediations between religious or denominational fractioning and the formation of political parties. In his Wörterbuch der Sittenlehre (1834), Johann Christian Karl Herbig stated: “A political religion is a religion whose ultimate purpose is associated with the state; it is therefore alw…

Märklin, Christian

(301 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jun 23, 1807, Maulbronn – Oct 18, 1849, Heilbronn). Beginning in 1821, Märklin, the scion of an old family of Württemberg theologians, went through the Württemberg institutions of theological education in the company of such figures as D.F. Strauß, F.T. Vischer, and Wilhelm Zimmermann (known in Ger. as the Geniepromotion, or “genius doctorates”). At the Protestant seminary in Blaubeuren and later at the Protestant house of studies in Tübingen, F.C. Baur inspired in Märklin an enthusiasm for the theology of F.D.E. Schleiermacher…

Saddle Period

(388 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Ger. Sattelzeit) has become a central concept in the exploration of conceptual history by German historians. It was coined spontaneously by Reinhard Koselleck in the planning stage of a lexicon sponsored by the Arbeitskreis für moderne Sozialgeschichte, Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe. Historisches Lexikon zur politisch-sozialen Sprache in Deutschland(8 vols. in 9, 1972–1997). It is possible that echoes of the concept of so-called axial or pivotal ages, developed by H. Freyer and C. Schmitt (among others), played a role. Kosel…

Rothe, Richard

(1,510 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jan 28, 1799, Posen [Poznań – Aug 20, 1867, Heidelberg), only son of a high-ranking Prussian official. Rothe began his theological studies in Heidelberg in 1817 and moved to Berlin in 1819; his teachers included C. Daub, G.W.F. Hegel, and J.W.A. Neander. In Neander’s home, he forged a friendship with F.A.G. Tholuck, who filled both with enthusiasm for the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements). In the fall of 1820, at the age of 21, he passed his first theological examinati…

Kirchlich-sozial (Movements)

(626 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The expression kirchlich-sozial (“church-social”) first appeared in 1848 in the writings of J. Wichern. At that time, Wichern did not yet distinguish between “Church-social,” “Christian-social,” and “Protestant-social.” With the establishment of the Evangelisch-Sozialer Kongreß (Protestant Social Congress) in 1890, however, these adjectives denoted increasingly different positions with regard to Protestant social reform. The term “Protestant-social” was now claimed by the bourgeois …

Nationalism

(5,477 words)

Author(s): Koschorke, Klaus | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Pierard, Richard V.
[German Version] I. The Concept Nationalism may be described as an integrative ideology that claims that loyalty to the inclusive body of the ¶ nation has absolute priority over all other commitments. Such competing loyalties include loyalty to a particular estate or social class, a dynasty, a local state, a region, a tribe, a denomination, or a religion. While the concept of a nation played a role in political debates in medieval Europe, its reference was not to the totality of the people but to the ruling class (the nationes of the nobility and the clergy). Modern nationalism emer…

Denominations, Study of

(664 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The term, propagated as Konfessionskunde by F. Kattenbusch in 1892, denotes a theological discipline that examines comparatively the differences between the various Christian denominations with a view to their confessions (of faith) or ¶ official doctrines, constructions of dogmatic identity, specific forms of ethos, liturgical practices, and religious lifestyles. Precursors of the new discipline – a discipline meant to integrate t…

Rust, Isaak

(217 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Oct 14, 1796, Mußbach in the Rhine­land Palatinate – Dec 14, 1862, Munich) began studying philosophy and theology at Heidelberg in 1815, receiving his Dr.Phil. in 1820. Thanks to friendly contacts with G.W.F. Hegel, the pastor of Ungstein wrote Philosophie und Christenthum, oder Wissen und Glauben (1825, 21833), using the tools of speculative rationalism to resolve the positional pluralism of rationalism, mediation theology (his term), and restorative confessional theology. While pastor of the French ¶ Reformed congregation in Erlangen, he was able to e…

Eisenach Conference

(517 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] After the end of the old Reich and the associated dissolution of the Corpus evangelicorum the regional churches ( Landeskirchen) of the German Protestant church no longer had a joint representative body. Following controversies in the ¶ media about a new all-Protestant body and negotiations moderated by M.A. v. Bethmann Hollweg which took place after 1846 in Berlin between representatives of the regional churches, in 1850 a number of church …

Schneckenburger, Matthias

(281 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jan 17, 1804, Thalheim, near Tuttlingen – Jun 3, 1848, Bern), elder brother of the writer Max Schneckenburger, author of the 1840 “Die Wacht am Rhein” (“The Watch on the Rhine”), the most important German patriotic anthem during the 1870/1871 Franco-Prussian War. Matthias rapidly completed all the stages of theological education in Württemberg. In Berlin in 1826 he attended the lectures of F.D.E. Schleiermacher, P.K. Marheineke, J.W.A. Neander, and G.W.F. Hegel. As a lecturer at the Tübingen Stift at the age of 23, he belonged to the Geniepromotion class that inclu…
▲   Back to top   ▲