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(1,474 words)

Author(s): Greschat, Katharina
Apelles, who died after 180 CE, was the most prominent disciple of Marcion, as well as a Christian teacher and headmaster of a school. He taught in Rome, where he engaged in philosophical and religious disputes (e.g. with Rhodon, a student of Tatian). Tertullian’s remark that Apelles became familiar with Platonic philosophy in Alexandria (Tert. Praesc. 30.5–6) is probably a polemical device, like the claim that Apelles abandoned Marcionitism by rejecting radical Marcionite asceticism and “falling into women” (Tert. Carn. chr. 6.1).Apelles was the author of at least two works…
Date: 2022-09-22

Noetus of Smyrna

(152 words)

Author(s): Greschat, Katharina
[German Version] Hippolytus, residing in Rome, knew the teaching of Noetus, who came from Smyrna (end of the 2nd cent.), but only through Noetus’s Roman students ( Haer. IX 7–10; X 26f.; derived from this: Epiph. Haer. 57; Philastrius of Brescia, Diversarum haereseon liber, 53; Theodoret, Haereticarum fabularum compendium, III 3). Noetus is considered the founder of (modalist) Monarchianism, which for soteriological reasons maintained the identity of the Father and the Son, and sought to defend this with polished dialectical language. His condemnation by a synod, reported in Contra…


(10,627 words)

Author(s): Heller, Birgit | Gerstenberger, Erhard S. | Lichtenberger, Hermann | Greschat, Katharina | Markschies, Christoph | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Primitive Christianity – IV. Church History – V. Judaism – VI. Islam – VII. Asia, Africa, and Latin America – VIII. Social Sciences – IX. Psychology – X. Philosophy of Religion – XI. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies To date there have been hardly any works devoted to men from the perspective of religious studies. Given the androcentrism of traditional scholarship, the category of homo religiosus has usually yielded knowledge of the religious male, but this work must …


(93 words)

Author(s): Greschat, Katharina
[German Version] came from Asia Minor and taught in Rome c. 180 as a disciple of Tatian (Eus. Hist. eccl. V 13.1–9). His works included a treatise against the Roman Marcionites (Marcion), whom he accused of divisiveness in their doctrine of first principles. He engaged Apelles in a disputation to show that the latter’s form of the single first principle doctrine was without merit. Katharina Greschat Bibliography K. Greschat, “‘Woher hast du den Beweis für deine Lehre?’ Der altkirchliche Lehrer Rhodon und seine Auseinandersetzung mit den römischen Marcioniten,” StPatr 34, 2001, 82–87.

Philip of Gortyna (Saint)

(105 words)

Author(s): Greschat, Katharina
[German Version] Philip of Gortyna (Saint), bishop of Gortyna, Crete (c. 170). Eusebius of Caesarea ( Hist. eccl. IV 21; dependent on Eusebius, Jer. Vir. ill. 30; Thdt., Haereticarum fabularum compendium I 25) counts Philip among the Orthodox. Eusebius probably knows him only from the correspondence of Dionysius of Corinth, who mentions a letter to Philip (Eus. Hist. eccl. IV 23.5). It must remain an open question whether Philip, in the writing against Marcion (Marcion) also mentioned in Eusebius Hist. eccl. IV 25, intended to accuse Pinytos of Knossos of Marcionite heresy. Katharina G…


(182 words)

Author(s): Greschat, Katharina
[German Version] Miltiades, Greek apologist trained as a rhetor (Tert. Val. V 1; Eus. Hist. eccl. V 17.1). He probably came from Asia Minor (Jer. Vir. ill. 39) and wrote under Marcus Aurelius; none of his works survives. Besides a work against Valentinus (Tert. Val. V 1), there is evidence of a literary debate with Montanism against which he declared that “a prophet should not speak in ecstasy” (Eus. Hist. eccl. V 17.1). He also wrote a work in two books against the Hellenes and the Jews, and a defense of the Christian way of life (which he called a philosophia) addressed the secular powers (Eus. Hi…