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Father

(1,502 words)

Author(s): Karle, Isolde
1. OT, NT, Early Church In the OT the father is the ancestor of a line, the protector and patriarch of the family, and has almost unlimited authority. The promises to the patriarchs (Patriarchal History) Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are central to the identity of Israel (and of the early church; see Romans 4). Yahweh, however, the God of the fathers, is rarely addressed as father, an attempt to avoid any proximity to the generative fertility gods in Israel’s surroundings (e.g., Ugarit; Mother Goddesses 1). Only during the postexilic period are more frequent references made to…

Emmanuel Movement

(205 words)

Author(s): Karle, Isolde
[German Version] The Emmanuel Movement was founded in 1906 by E. Worcester, a psychology professor and subsequently rector of Emmanuel Church in Boston. Later collaborators included Samuel McComb, Isidor Coriat, Loring Waart Batten and D. Pratt. The Emmanuel Movement, premised on the immediate unity of body, soul, and spirit, encouraged cooperation between doctors and clergy. Its…

Supervision (Professional)

(348 words)

Author(s): Karle, Isolde
[German Version] The word supervision in the sense of this article originated in the field of psychosocial work; it denotes a form of professional guidance related to professional practice; its goal is to improve the quality of professional work. Under the guidance of a trained specialist, workers reflect on the psychological, social, and institutional dimensions of their professional activity. There is individual supervision, but also group supervision (Clinical pastoral education) and team supervi…

Residence Obligation

(524 words)

Author(s): Tiling, Peter v. | Karle, Isolde
[German Version] I. Church Law Residence obligation is the requirement that people, especially clergy, live at their place of employment and if necessary move into an official residence, usually a ¶ parsonage. This obligation must be distinguished from mandatory presence, i.e. the obligation not to be away from one’s place of employment for extended periods except as specifically provided (vacation, special permission). Canon law and Protestant church law treat this obligation similarly. In both, stabilitas loci is intended to make sure the clergy can be reached at any…

Professionalization

(2,084 words)

Author(s): Stichweh, Rudolf | Karle, Isolde | Strohm, Theodor
[German Version] I. General The term profession denotes a particular form of vocation that modern society inherited from the estate-based, corporative world of early modern Europe. The ¶ earliest examples were the academic vocations of theologians, jurists, and physicians, who were educated by the faculties of the medieval and early modern universities. An important element was therefore a close tie to one of the great traditions of scholarly knowledge, which were then applied by “professionals” in practical situations li…