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Ḳāʾim-Maḳām

(714 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E. | P. M. Holt
In the Ottoman Empire the title of Ḳāʾim-maḳām was borne by a number of different officials, the most important of whom was the ṣadāret ḳāʾim-maḳāmi̊ or ḳāʾim-maḳām pas̲h̲a who stayed in the capital as deputy when the grand vizier had to leave for a military campaign. The appointment of a ḳāʾim-maḳām seems to have begun in the 10th/16th or even in the 9th/15th century and it lasted until the end of the Empire. The ḳāʾim-maḳām enjoyed almost all the authority of the grand vizier, issuing firmans and nominating functionaries, but he was not allowed to intervene in the a…

Ḏj̲arīda

(16,453 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Pellat, Ch. | Ed. | P. M. Holt | K. Hitti, Philip | Et al.
, literally “leaf”, which has become the usual term in modern Arabic for a newspaper, its adoption being attributed to Fāris al-S̲h̲idyāḳ [ q.v.]. Its synonym ṣaḥīfa is less used in the sing., but the plural ṣuḥuf is more common than d̲j̲arāʾid . Some interest in the European press was shown by the Ottomans as early as the 18th century and, it would seem, excerpts from European newspapers were translated for the information of the dīwān (Prussian despatch from Constantinople, of 1780, cited by J. W. Zinkeisen, Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches , vi, Gotha 1859, …