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Glossolalia (Speaking in Tongues)

(1,081 words)

Author(s): Holm, Nils G. | Pratscher, Wilhelm | Thiede, Werner
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. New Testament – III. Psychology of Religion I. Religious Studies Glossolalia is a universal religious phenomenon in which utterances are produced that from the viewpoint of the speaker belong to a foreign “language.” Glossolalia appears in many cultures. In non-Christian contexts, it is often shamans (Shamanism), magicians (Magic), or other religious virtuosos who make use of it. When the ¶ spirit leaves the body or the body is taken over by another spirit, the shaman often signals the event by uttering alien sound…

James, Brother of Jesus

(353 words)

Author(s): Pratscher, Wilhelm
[German Version] James maintained his distance from the earthly Jesus (Mark 3:21, 31–35; 6:1–6; John 7:5). The parallel synoptic accounts and John 2:1–12 already correct this. According to 1 Cor 15:7, James was a witness to Jesus' resurrection. It appears that this was the main reason why the mother and brothers of Jesus (Jesus, Brothers and Sisters of) joined the Christian community at an early stage (Acts 1:14). Paul already noticed him on his first visit to Jerusalem (Gal 1:19). At the council, he was one of the “pillars” and accepted the Gentile mission without circumcision (Gal 2:1–10). After Peter's departure (Acts 12:17), he assumed the leadership of the Jerusalem community. His understanding that Jewish Christians must also observe the ritual regulations of the Torah caused him to intervene in Antioch (Gal 2:11–14). As a resu…