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Flesh and Spirit

(2,268 words)

Author(s): Frevel, Christian | Reinmuth, Eckart | Krötke, Wolf
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Dogmatics I. Old Testament In the writings of the OT, flesh and spirit are fundamental anthropological concepts, far more complementary than antithetical. The groundwork for a flesh/spirit dualism (IV) is partially laid in the OT, but it is not developed. The dualism gradually began to intensify in the intertestamental period under Hellenistic influence. 1. Flesh (usually Heb. בָּשָׂר/ bāśar, less often שְׁאֵר/ še'er) denotes the essential components making up human and animal bodies, often limited to th…

Lazarus

(346 words)

Author(s): Reinmuth, Eckart
[German Version] Lazarus, is a literary figure in Luke and John (Gk from Heb. Eleazar, “God helps”; cf. Matt 1:15). While John 11:1–12:11 identifies Lazarus as the brother of the sisters Mary and Martha (cf. Luke 10:38ff.), the parable in Luke 16:19–31 portrays him as a fictitious person whose fate after death is contrasted with that of an unnamed rich man. Since the use of a personal name in parables is atypical and unique in the New Testament, the significance of the theophorous sentence-name “Lazarus” (“Go…