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(159 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
[English Version] Sutel, Johann (1504 Altmorschen bei Melsungen – 26.8.1575 Northeim), bekleidete na…

Oldenburg (Land)

(1,364 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
[English Version] I. Territorium Das Land O. ging zwar als Staat 1946 im Bundesland Niedersachsen auf, bewahrt aber in den Grenzen der ev. und der kath. Kirche ziemlich genau den Umfang, den das »Herzogtum« O. durch den Wiener Kongreß angenommen hatte mit den Landkreisen Friesland, Wesermarsch, Ammerland, O., Cloppenburg und Vechta sowie den kreisfreien Städten Wilhelmshaven, O. und Delmenhorst.…


(1,568 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
[German Version] I. Territory – II. History – III. Statistics I. Territory The territory of Oldenburg was absorbed in 1946 into the Land of Lower Saxony, but within the structures of the Protestant and Catholic churches, it retains more or less the boundaries of the duchy of Oldenburg determined by the Congress of Vienna (Vienna, Congress of), comprising the administrative districts of Friesland, Wesermarsch, Ammerland, Oldenburg, Cloppenburg, and Vechta, and the independent cities of Wilhelmshaven, Oldenburg, and Delmenhorst.…

Hammarskjöld, Dag

(160 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
[German Version] (Jul 29, 1905, Jönköping, Sweden – Sep 17, 1961, near Ndola, Zambia), first held high government offices in Sweden. In 1953, he was appointed secretary-general of the UN. His negotiation skills enabled him to mediate in numerous conflicts. When he attempted to arbitrate in the Congo crisis, he died in an unexplaine…

Communio sanctorum

(195 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
[German Version] The expression communio sanctorum, an explanatory addition to “the holy church” in the Apostles' Creed, first appears in the context of pre-baptismal instruction in the catechetical sermon De symbolo of Bishop Nicetas of Remesiana. It soon came into widespread use, especially in Gaul. It ma…

Sutel, Johann

(177 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
[German Version] (1504, Altmorschen, near Melsungen – Aug 26, 1575, Northeim). After receiving a master’s degree at Erfurt, he became rector of the Latin school in Melsungen, for which ordination was not required. In 1530 the city council of Göttingen app…

Sacredness and Sinfulness of the Church

(386 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
[German Version] The sacredness (or holiness) of the church is stated in principle in Eph 5:27: Christ sanctifies the church by cleansing it with the washing of water; it is then “holy” ( hágia, sancta) and without blemish, i.e. sinless. The creeds adopted the predicate of holiness as one of the essential marks of the church (BSLK 24). In the course of time, the sense of the church’s holiness was extended from moral spotlessness to include purity from heretical doctrine (sixth Synod of Toledo, 638; DH 493). For the faithful, mem…

16.2.2 Masoretic Texts and Ancient Texts Close to mt

(3,231 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
Part of 16 Lamentations - 16.2 Ancient Hebrew Textsmt-Lam is the only available complete Hebrew text of Lamentations. The poetic lines, which are in general very regular throughout the five poems,1 as well as the rigorous literary form of the alphabetic acrostics in Lamentations 1–4 contr…
Date: 2020-03-17

16.2.3 Other Texts

(4,073 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
Part of 16 Lamentations - 16.2 Ancient Hebrew TextsThe manuscript 4QLam (4Q111; preserves remains of a Lamentations text distinct from mt-Lam (16.2.2). It was first published by Cross in 19831 and finally edited by the same author in * djdxi in 2000.2 Kotzé, in his text-critical study of 2013, has discussed and evaluated anew the textual variants of 4QLam in great detail.3The fragments of 4QLam contain extensive text from Lam 1:1–18. Verses 6–8 and 11–17 are almost completely legible and exhibit a textual tradition that differs significantly from the proto-Masoretic text4 including (apart from the orthographical differences) the considerable number of forty-five (or forty-six)5 textual variants to mt among 193 legible words ( textual…
Date: 2020-03-17

Fundamental Theology

(1,763 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf | Phillips, Craig A.
1. Concept “Fundamental theology” is a comprehensive term used to describe reflection that is basic to theology as a whole. The term has been used in a variety of ways, and the shape and scope of this theology often depend on the specific theological conception or issue under discussion at the time. Some theologians employ the term “foundational theology” and “philosophical theology” interchangeably with “fundamental theology,” while others make a distinction between these terms. Fundamental theology provides elements for the development of systematic theology by expounding on the possibility and reality of revelation. As apologetics, it provides a basis for faith’s claim to truth. In the form of the German encyclopedia, it deals with the unity and academic character of theology in all its …


(2,855 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf | Thompson, J. Michael | Aymans, Winfried
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Liturgy – III. Music – IV. Canon Law I. Dogmatics In the Vulgate, the Latin term communio, along with the more frequent translations communicatio and societas, renders the New Testament word κοινωνία ( koinōnía). It …


(19,399 words)

Author(s): Wenz, Gunther | Davis, Derek | Grünschloß, Andreas | Grappe, Christian | Schäfer, Rolf | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Religious Studies – III. Early Christianity – IV. Early Church to the Reformation – V. Modern Era – VI. Orthodox Churches – VII. Asia, Africa, Latin America – VIII. Systematic Theology – IX. Ethics – X. Practical Theology – XI. Ecumenical Discussion – XII. Law I. Concept 1. Theology The loan-word, church, which in common parlance can mean both the Christian worship service and the building dedicated to its performance as well as the constituted social configuration of Christian faith in the sense of an institution and its representative organs, apparently stems from an adjectival derivative of the Greek substantive κύριος/ kýrios. While, in accordance with this etym…


(10,960 words)

Author(s): Nehring, Andreas | Otto, Eckart | Deming, Willoughby Howard | Schäfer, Rolf | Nave-Herz, Rosemarie | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Sociology – VI. Systematic Theology – VII. Law – VIII. Practical Theology – IX. Judaism – X. Islam I. Religious Studies The term marriage denotes a relationship entered into between two or more persons of different sex, ritually formalized, intended to be permanent, and recognized by society. In all cultures, definitions of economic and sexual rights and the conveyance of social status to children (Child/Childhood) are part of the socially ¶ defined framework of marriage. An emphasis on offspring is not constitutive for all forms of marriage. Although as a rule marriage is understood as an institutionalized relationship between men and women, it cannot be defined exclusively heterosexually. Besides same-sex forms of marriage in certain African societies and among the Nāyar in southern India (Gough, 1968), homosexual partnerships (Homosexuality) are socially recognized in certain European countries and parts of North America. Therefo…