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Pragmatics

(561 words)

Author(s): Vetter, Martin | Grube, Dirk-Martin
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion and Fundamental Theology In modern philosophy, the term pragmatics (from Gk τὸ πρᾶγμα/ tó prágma, “action, act, thing”) denotes both purposive and object-oriented cognition and action. Departing from the usage of I. Kant, who understood the adjective pragmatisch instrumentally (e.g. Kritik der reinen Vernunft, 1781, B 834f.; ET: Critique of Pure Reason, 1881), semiotics follows in the footsteps of C.S. Peirce’s triadic theory of signs, relating it to the interpretation of signs (interpretant). Peirce’s point…

Semiotics

(3,339 words)

Author(s): Grasmück, Oliver | Macho, Thomas | Alkier, Stefan | Kober, Michael | Vetter, Martin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Semiotics, a discipline inaugurated primarily by C.S. Peirce and Ferdinand de Saussure (see II and IV below), is the systematic analysis of signs (Gk σημεῖον/ sēmeíon) and the way the human mind perceives and understands them. A sign in the sense of semiotics can be any present physical or mental entity that is in a position to stand for an entity not present. A sign is constituted by the conjunction of two elements, the signifier and the signified. In religious studies, semiotics examin…

Fiction

(810 words)

Author(s): Vetter, Martin | Nißlmüller, Thomas
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Fundamental Theology – III. Literature I. Philosophy of Religion Fiction, from Latin fingere, “to configure, imagine, make up,” refers, in modern philosophy, first to that class of signs which – differing from descriptive accounts of natural or cultural “facts” – denote nothing and – in contrast with illusion – deals expressly with this reference function. To this class belong aesthetic creatures (unicorn), literary figures (Don Quixote), and also the so-called entia rationis (I. Kant's concept of the pure intellect, cf. Critique …