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Lemovii

(79 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Tribe on the Baltic Sea between the Oder and the Vistula (Tac. Germ. 44,1), neighbouring the Rugii. The version of the name is uncertain, and identification with other tribal names, passed down to us, for instance in Ptolemy, is hypothetical. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography A. Franke, s.v. L., RE Suppl. 5, 549 G. Perl, in: J. Herrmann (ed.), Griech. und lat. Quellen zur Frühgesch. Mitteleuropas bis zur Mitte des 1. Jt. u.Z., Teil 2, 1990, 249.

Icorigium

(159 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Roman road-station (It. Ant. 373,1: Egorigio; Tab. Peut. 3,1) where the Trier - Cologne road crossed the Kyll, modern Jünkerath. From the 1st cent. AD long-houses were built close to each other on both sides of the road, with the narrow side facing the street. Destroyed during the German invasions of the 3rd cent., protected in the late Constantinian period by a circular fortification (135 m diameter) with 13 round towers and two gateh…

Ubii

(479 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic tribe (Caes. B Gall. 4,3,3; Tac. Germ. 28,4; Tac. Hist. 4,28,1; 4,64), settled in Caesar's time on the right bank of the Rhine (Rhenus [2]) between the lower La(u)gona (modern Lahn) and Taunus. Displaced by the Suebi, the U. allied with Caesar in 55 BC (Caes. B Gall. 4,8,3; 16,5-8). Caesar's Rhine crossings in 55 and 53 BC probably took place from the Neuwieder Becken in the territory of the U. The history and chronology of their resettlement on the left bank of the Rhine…

Nuit(h)ones

(82 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] The Nuit(h)ones were among the tribes worshipping the goddess Nerthus (Tac. Germ. 40,2); they are believed to have lived in Holstein and western Mecklenburg [1. 218; 2. 460-465]. The suggestion by [3] that Nuit(h)ones be read as Teutones is not convincing. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography 1 A. Lund (ed.), P. Cornelius Tacitus: Germania, 1988 2 D. Timpe, Tacitus' Germania als religionsgeschichtliche Quelle, in: Germanische Religionsgeschichte (suppl. vol. RGA 5), 1992, 434-485 3 A. Genrich, Der Siedlungsraum der Nerthusstämme, in: Die Kunde…

Mattiaci

(416 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] A tribe that settled in Wetterau and Taunus during the Imperial period. The Celtic name is associated with Mattium, the main city of the Chatti (cf. Ptol. 2,11,14: Ματτικόν; Mattikón). It is debated whether the M. were a sub-tribe of the Germanic Chatti which had already separated from them during the Augustan period, and settled in the above-mentioned area with Roman permission (for earlier research, cf. [1; 2. 52-57; 3]), or whether the M. are those mentioned as having defected because of the destruction of…

Tencteri

(191 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic tribe, driven in 58 BC from their homeland to the east of the Rhine by the Suebi. After three years as nomads, in 55 BC the T. crossed the Rhine (Rhenus [2]), defeated the west-bank Menapii, who had refused to accept them into their territory, and migrated up the Meuse (Mosa [1]) as far as the Eburones and the Condrusi. There, Caesar annihilated them; only some of the cavalry escaped to the Sugambri to the east of the Rhine (Caes. B Gall. 4,1,1-4,18,5). In 17/16 BC they, …

Rhenus

(1,104 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] River in upper-Italy, present-day Reno in Emilia-Romagna River in Upper Italy, present-day Reno in Emilia-Romagna, right-hand feeding river of the Padus (Po), which rises in the Apennines above Pistoriae (Pistoia) and flows past Marzabotto through the region of Felsina (Bononia [1]). In Etruscan times it flowed into the Padus near Voghiera to the southeast of Ferrara, in Roman times somewhat more to the west. Nowadays it flows via an artificial canal directly into the Adriatic Sea. In…

Rigomagus

(288 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) | Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] [1] Roman fort in Germania Inferior Roman fort in Germania Inferior (Germani [1] II.) on the road from Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) to Confluentes [1] (Koblenz), modern Remagen. At least from the Claudian era a wood and earth fort existed; from the Flavian era, a stone fort stood in the same place. Numerous stone inscriptions are extant. R. was a beneficiarii station from the 2nd half of the 2nd to the middle of the 3rd cents. AD. A hoard of coins from AD 270/280 (274/5?) has been connected with the occupation of …

Sumelocenna

(229 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Celtic settlement on the Nicer/Neckar (Tab. Peut. 4,1; [1. 199-271, 693 f.], cf. [3. 357-382]), modern Rottenburg. Settled in the Roman period, probably after AD 90 [3. 399-402]; there is no evidence of a fort [2. 469 f. D 89], but there is evidence of an ala Vallensium (CIL XIII 6361). Inscriptions attest to a procurator (administrator of the imperial saltus S., ILS 8855, probably at the beginning of the 2nd cent. AD), an ordo and magistri of the saltus (ILS 7100, middle of the 2nd cent.). S. was in the periphery of a civi…

Saltus Teutoburgiensis

(401 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] The only reference to the ‘Teutoburg Forest’ in ancient sources is Tac. Ann. 1,60,3, mentioning it as the scene of Varus' battle in AD 9 (P. Quinctilius [II 7]; Arminius). On his foray into Germania east of the Rhine in AD 15, Germanicus [2] entered the region between Amisia and Lupia, “... haud procul Teutoburgiensi saltu, in quo reliquiae Vari legionumque insepultae dicebantur” (“not far from the forest of Teutoburg, in which the remains of Varus and the legions were said to lie unburied”). The battle site was then reconnoitred and the fallen buried. In the absence of c…

Suebi

(624 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] The Suebi, an association of Germanic tribes or groups of Germanic peoples, numerous and strong (Str. 4,3,4; 7,1,3), between the Rhenus [2] (Rhine), Istrus [2] (Danube), Albis (Elbe) and as far as the Mare Suebicum (Baltic Sea) area. The nucleus of their territory was Lusatia, later Saxony and Thuringia. Although first recorded in the 1st century BC (Caes. Gall. 1,37,3 f.;  cf. Tac. Germ. 2,2), their name had been coined by the 2nd century BC. The S. included e.g. the Marcomanni, …

Tarodunum

(145 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oppidum (Ταρόδουνον; Taródounon). Celtic township at the end of the Höllental valley (Ptol. 2,11,30), modern Zarten in the Black Forest. There is evidence of a fortified site (approximately 200 ha) with murus Gallicus (scarcely traces of settlement), with a 2nd/1st century BC settlement area outside it (approximately 12-16 ha) (Celtic coins, products of gold smelting, a planchet, amphora sherds, a glass bracelet, ring beads). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography F. Fischer, Beiträge zur Kenntnis von T., i…

Nida

(364 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Roman vicus, modern Frankfurt am Main-Heddernheim in Germany. Beginning with the Flavian period (2nd half of 1st cent. AD) there is evidence for at least 10 camps between Heddernheim and the adjoining Praunheim. Evidence of longer-term activity is only found in a cavalry fort (5 ha in size) which was constructed in the early Flavian period in timber and earth and then extended in stone towards the end of the 1st cent. It was presumably occupied by the ala I Flavia Gemina. There is also epigraphical evidence of the cohors IV…

Rigodulum

(115 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Town located on the right shore of the Mosella, present-day Riol; its name is Celtic. In AD 70, during the Batavian Revolt, it was the location of the battle between the entrenched Treveri under Iulius [II 43] Civilis and the Romans who had been brought there from Mogontiacum (Mainz) by Petilius [II 1] Cerialis. During this battle, the most prominent of the Belgae were taken prisoner by the Romans (cf. Tac. Hist. 4,71,4 f.). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. Keune, s. v. R., RE 1 A, 803 f.  H. Heubner, P. Co…

Mons Melibocus

(91 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Μηλίβοκον ὄρος/ Mēlíbokon όros). According to Ptol. (2,11,7), the most northerly and important mountain range in Germania, which stretched over several degrees of longitude; the southern frontier of the Cherusci and the Chamavi. Its precise identification is disputed. Recently the Thuringian Forest and the Erzgebirge mountains have been put forwards. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography A. Franke, s.v. Melibocus mons, RE 15, 509  G.Chr. Hansen, in: J. Herrmann (ed.), Griechische und lateinische Quellen zur Frühgeschichte Mitteleuropas bis z…

Colonia Ulpia Traiana

(399 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae Roman colony on the left side of the Lower Rhine, modern Xanten, on a low terrace between two Rhine branches in an area only suited to a limited extent for cultivation. While early signs of settlement from the 4th or 3rd cents. BC indicate no continuity with the Roman period, a favoured central location of the  Cugerni already arose there at the turn of the millennium because of the proximity of the legion camp of  Vetera. According to Tac. Hist. 4,22,1, the settlement was set up in the 60s of the 1st cent. AD ‘in the style of a   mu…

Laciburgium

(62 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Λακιβούργιον; Lakiboúrgion). Site in northern Germania magna, west of the Oder (Ptol. 2,11,12), not yet localized. Possibly a misspelling of Asciburgium (modern Moers-Asberg). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography A. Franke, s.v. L., RE 12, 344f. G. Chr. Hansen, in: J. Herrmann (ed.), Griech. und lat. Quellen zur Frühgesch. Mitteleuropas bis zur Mitte des 1. Jt. u.Z., Teil 3, 1991, 581.

Tolbiacum

(140 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (modern Zülpich, district of Euskirchen in North Rhine-Westphalia). Town ( vicus: CIL XIII 7920;  It. Ant. 373,4: vicus Sopenorum - possibly a Celtic tribal name), originally in the settlement area of the Eburones, then of the Ubii (Tac. Hist. 4,79,2). Presumably the location of a station of beneficiarii . Remains survive of thermae and burial monuments. After being destroyed in Germanic attacks in 275/6 AD, T. was fortified at the beginning of the 4th cent. AD . There is evidence of Romanic settlement until the middle of the 5th cent. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliogr…

Taunus

(302 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] One of the highest mountain ranges in Germania (Mela 3,30; name possibly Celtic). In AD 15 Germanicus [2] had a fort built in monte Tauno on the ruins of a fortress designed by Claudius [II 24] Drusus (Tac. Ann. 1,56,1). This fortress has often been identified with a fort established by Drusus 'among the Chatti immediately on the Rhine' in 11 BC (Cass. Dio 54,33,4). Since the latter is now presumed rather to be in the area of the Neuwieder Basin, the identification of Drusus' two fortresses is as uncertain as the connection with Ἄρταυνον/ Ártaunon in Ptol. 2,11,29. The T…

Vetera

(975 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul | Legio | Legio | Limes | Limes | Batavian Revolt Roman camp on the Rhine at the 60th milestone downstream from Colonia Agrippinensis (modern Cologne; Tac. Ann. 1,45,1) between the modern towns of Birten and Xanten. The camp originated from the early Imperial period. The name, probably indigenous, refers to an archaeologically unattested earlier settlement nearby (cf. Tac. Hist. 4,18,3: castra quibus Veterum nomen est, 'camp with the name V.', quite often in accounts of the Batavian Revolt; Ptol.…

Semnones

(252 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Tribe of the Suebi between Albis (Elbe) and Viadua (Oder; Str. 7,1,3; Tac. Germ. 39; Tac. Ann. 2,45,1; Ptol. 3,1,22; 51), known to the Romans mainly through Tiberius’ campaign in AD 5 (R. Gest. div. Aug. 26; Vell. Pat. 2,106 f.). Given their size and cultic tradition, they regarded themselves as the oldest and most notable of the Suebi (Tac. Germ. 39; cf. [2.473-479]). As allies of Maroboduus, they fell to the Cherusci in AD 17 (Tac. Ann. 2,45,1), but were considered to be friendl…

Cugerni

(311 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Cuberni). Presumably a part of a tribe, certainly one of the groups succeeding the  Sugambri resettled by the Romans in 8 BC on the lefthand side of the Rhine (on the motives [1]). According to Pliny (HN 4,106: Cuberni) they lived between the  Ubii in the south and the  Batavi in the north and probably already created in the 1st cent. AD a   civitas based on peregrine law. On the basis of an extant fragmentary inscription (AE 1981, 690 = AE 1984, 650) from AD 68, Cib[ernodurum] was developed close to the later  Colonia Ulpi…

Silva Marciana

(43 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Probably a term in late Antiquity (Tab. Peut. 2,4; 4,1; Amm. Marc. 21,8,2 referring to 361 AD) for the Black Forest, which elsewhere is called Abnoba mons . Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography A. Franke, s. v. Marciana silva, RE 14, 1504 f.

Germani, Germania

(3,987 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
G. is a collective noun attested in various regions of Europe and West Asia and was disseminated, at least in part, by the migrations of splinter groups. Linguistically, Germanic belongs to the Indo-European language family ( Germanic languages); the term ‘Germanic’ was attributed from outside. Countering popular, Romantically influenced ideas that assumed a parallelism of language and material culture, as well as a lasting ethnic constancy, and countering an inherently racist concept of the uni…

Nicer

(181 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Right-hand tributary of the Rhine, modern Neckar, whose course has changed many times, primarily around its mouth. From the La Tène period (La Tène culture) the region was inhabited by Celts. In the early Imperial period the lower courses were settled by Elbe-Germani, who gave their name to the civitas Ulpia Sueborum Nicrensium established around Lopodunum (modern Ladenburg) from the time of Trajan. The region around its headwaters and the area between the Odenwald and the Rhine were secured by fortresses from the time of Vespasian…

Teutoni

(592 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic tribe, settled, according to Pytheas [4] (Plin. HN 37,35) on the western coast of Jutland, probably neighbouring the Cimbri (= C.), in conjunction with whom they are often named (cf. Vell. Pat. 2,8), most scholars (cf. e.g. [1. 232 note 71]) therefore supposing that the two tribes migrated southwards together to the Danube (Ister, Istrus [1]), to Noricum (victory over Papirius [I 8] Carbo at Noreia in 113 BC) and thence through the region of the Helvetii to Gaul (Gallia).…

Vacalus

(63 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (modern Waal). A slow-flowing (Tac. Ann. 2,6,3 f.) left bank distributary of the Rhenus [2] (modern Rhine); it incorporates the Mosa [1] (modern Maas) to form the Insula Batavorum (Caes. Gall. 4,10,2; Tac. Ann. 2,6: Vahalis; Serv. Aen. 8,727: Vahal) and the Rhenus Bicornis ('with two horns';  cf. Verg. Aen. 8,727). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography P. Goessler, s. v. V., RE 7 A, 2018-2024.

Noviomagus

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] [1] City of the Bituriges Vivisci in Aquitania The city of the Bituriges Vivisci (Βίτουργες Οὐβίσκοι/ Bítourges Oubískoi) in Aquitania mentioned in Ptol. 2,7,7 (Νουιόμαγος/ Nouiómagos) is generally identified with a Roman vicus near Brion (Saint-Germain-d'Esteuil) in the Médoc between Lesparre and Pauillac ( département of Gironde). This town with an ancient sanctuary of the Medulli had been inhabited from the 3rd cent. BC; urban development is recognisable from the time of Claudius (41-54 AD). It was in this period that the fanum (sanctuary) and the theatre we…

Segni

(78 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic people, mentioned only by Caesar (Caes. Gall. 6,32,1 f.) together with the Condrusi, between the Treveri and the Eburones, who assured him by means of an embassy in 53 BC, that they would not make common cause with the Germani on the left bank of the Rhine. Their presumed place of settlement was in the Luxemburgish and Belgian Ardennes. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. B. Keune, s. v. S., RE 2 A, 1075 f.  Ch.B. Rüger, Germania inferior, 1968, 35 f.

Kalkriese

(495 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Kalkriese In the course of systematic archaeological investigations since 1987 in K. near Bramsche, district of Osnabrück, several Roman period finds have come to light, attesting to an extensive battleground between the Romans and the Germani (see illustration). By the end of 1997, a total of almost 3,000 objects had been recovered, among them some 1,300 coins and 1,600 ‘militaria’ in the broadest sense attributable to the Romans. In addition t…

Marcomagus

(131 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Station (It. Ant. 373,2; Tab. Peut. 3,1) on the Roman road from Augusta [6] Treverorum to Colonia Agrippinensis, modern Nettersheim-Marmagen, district of Euskirchen. It was possibly associated with a vicus located in the Urft valley south of Nettersheim, which was probably abandoned in the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. AD (cf. [1; 2]; CIL XVII 2, 554 of AD 350-353). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography 1 A.-B. Follmann-Schulz, Die römischen Tempelanlagen in der Provinz Germania inferior, in: ANRW II 18.1, 1986, 750-753 2 J. Hagen, Römerstraßen der Rheinprov., 21931, …

Segorigium

(38 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] A vicus , attested only in an inscription, presumably near the Worringen district of Cologne (CIL XIII 8518: vicani Segorigienses; today the inscription has disappeared). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. B. Keune, s. v. S., RE 2 A, 1087 f.

Salii

(1,051 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Linderski, Jerzy (Chapel Hill, NC)
[German version] [1] Sub-tribe of the Franci According to the prevailing view, the S. are considered a sub-tribe of the Franci originally from the north of the Rhine delta, later in Toxandria (modern Belgian Brabant; Amm. Marc. 17,8,3); the Merovingians are also supposed to have begun their rise as kings of the S. or ‘Salian Franks’ [1. 524-541; 2; 4; 5. 55-57 and fig. 39]. The S. are first mentioned by Julian. Ep. 361 for the year AD 358: according to his account, some of the S. subjected themselves t…

Promea

(62 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Modern Prüm (Rhineland-Palatinate), a water-abundant tributary of the Sauer (Sura), which it joins below Echternach; mentioned by Auson. Mos. 354 together with the Nims. The areas the P. flows through were densely populated in Roman times. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. Steinhausen, Archäologische Siedlungskunde des Trierer Landes, 1936, 324 f.  P. Goessler, s. v. P., RE 23, 650 f.

Iuliacum

(169 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Roman posting station (It. Ant. 375,8; 378,7; Tab. Peut. 2,5) in Germania inferior on the road from Cologne to Tongeren at the crossing of the Rur, the modern Jülich. Epigraphically attested is [vic]ani [Iuliac]enses on the base of a Jupiter column from the early 2nd cent. AD [1. 195 no. 196]. Bricks of the legio VI Victrix, a dedication by one of its soldiers (CIL XIII 7869), and a funerary relief confirm the presence of the military. I. was the central place of a fertile settlement landscape with many villae rusticae. In the early 4th cent., I. was fortified with a …

Portus

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Artificially extended harbour complex near Ostia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre An artificial harbour complex, created under the emperor Claudius (AD 41-54) to extend the harbour of Ostia (with plan) and enlarged under Trajan (AD 98-117), c. 3 km northwest of Ostia. The Claudian harbour basin ( c. 80 hectares) was protected from the sea by a mole structure (but not actually safe; in AD 62 almost 200 ships went down in a storm: Tac. Ann. 15,18) and marked by a lighthouse (cf. plan: 1) (according to Suet. C…

Kastel

(469 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Roman fort and vicus called Castellum Mattiacorum on the right bank of the Rhine, in the region of the Mattiaci, today Mainz-Kastel. A bridgehead of timber and earth had probably safeguarded the Rhine crossing from the time of Augustus. No later than the time of Tiberius (AD 14-37) a bridge on wooden piles spanned the river here ( c. 700 metres long). Its conversion to a stone bridge had perhaps already begun in the time of Claudius and Nero (AD 41-68). The military complex was probably destroyed in the year of four emperors (AD 69), but…

Lesura

(92 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Left-hand tributary of the Moselle (Auson. Mos. 365), which flows into the Moselle near Bernkastel, modern Lieser. L. or Lesora is the name of a mountain in the Cevennes, modern Lozère (Sid. Apoll. Carm. 24,44; cf. Plin. HN 11, 240), Lesuros (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 48) a river on the east coast of Spain. There is also a Lieser in Carinthia (Austria). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography F. Cramer, s.v. L., RE 12, 2138 L. Weisgerber, Erläuterungen zur Karte der römerzeitlich bezeugten rheinischen Namen, in: Rheinische Vierteljahresblätter 23, 1958, 15.

Vangiones

(191 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] A presumably Germanic, later Celticised people, whose original homeland on the right bank of the Rhenus [2] (modern Rhine) is unknown. They marched across the Rhine with Ariovistus, who was defeated by Caesar in 58 BC (Caes. B Gall. 1,51,2). The V. were initially for the most part driven back over the Rhine. In the time of Augustus, but no later than before the middle of the 1st cent. AD (Tac. Ann. 12,27,2), they were settled on the left bank of the Rhine to the north of the Triboci and the Nemetes, and to the south of Mogontiacum; the capital of their civitas was Borbetomagus…

Salmona

(26 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Left tributary of the Moselle (Auson. Mos. 366), present-day Salm. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. B. Keune, s. v. S., RE 1 A, 1986.

Saxones

(589 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Σάξονες/ Sáxones, the Saxons). Association of Germanic tribes, first mentioned at Ptol. 2,11,11. According to him, they settled in Holstein to the northeast of the lower Elbe; in the west their territory bordered the sea (Ptol. 2,11,31: three Saxon islands). Presumably the S. originated from the Reudigni and the Aviones (Tac. Germ. 40,2) [1]. They may have become known to the Romans earlier, possibly in 5 AD when a fleet sailed to the Cimbrian peninsula, yet Tacitus does not menti…

Saalburg

(461 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Roman limes fort (Limes [III], with map) north of modern Bad Homburg, on a pass over the Taunus. The small redoubts A and B, generally associated with fortification measures undertaken under the emperor Domitian (AD 81-96) after the war with the Chatti (Chatti), have been hitherto successively regarded as the oldest installations [1; 2; 3; 4]. Redoubt A, with its entrance to the south, may possibly date from the reign of Vespasian (AD 69-79) as a marching or construction camp for sh…

Laur(i)um

(131 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Station in the territory of the Batavi (Tab. Peut. 2,3) on one of two roads between Ulpia Noviomagus and Lugdunum Batavorum (modern Katwijk), modern Woerden. Roman finds from about 50 to the 3rd cent. AD, a fort only from the Flavian period onwards (AD 69-96). Initially garrison of the cohors XV voluntariorum, after the middle of the 2nd cent. AD of the cohors III Breucorum. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography H. Schönberger, Die röm. Truppenlager der frühen und mittleren Kaiserzeit zw. Nordsee und Inn, in: BRGK 66, 1985, 439 B 6 J. K. Haalebos, Ausgrabungen in Woer…

Tubantes

(173 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic tribe to the west of the upper Amisia [1] (modern Ems). Germanicus [2] was attacked by the T. in AD 14 (Tac. Ann. 1,51,2); T. may then have also been paraded in Germanicus' triumphal procession (Str. 7,1,4: Σουβάττιοι/ Soubáttioi). Later than the Chamavi and earlier than the Usipetes, they settled predominantly between the Vecht and the Ijssel (Tac. Ann. 13,55,2). Then they migrated southwards together with the Usipetes, who besieged Mogontiacum in AD 69 (Tac. Hist. 4,37,3). According to Ptol. 2,11,23 (Τούβαντοι/ Toúbantoi), they were neighbours of the …

Vada

(85 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Roman auxiliary fort, whose exact location is not known; probably on the left bank of the Vacalus (modern Waal). The name implies a ford. During the Batavian Revolt in AD 70/1, V. was attacked by Iulius [II 43] Civilis and successfully relieved by Q. Petillius [II 1] Cerialis. On alleged inscriptional mentions of V. cf. [1]. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography 1 H. Nesselhauf, Neue Inschriften aus dem römischen Germanien und den angrenzenden Gebieten, in: BRGK 27, 1938, 51-134, 119 No. 257. P. Goessler, s. v. V., RE 7 A, 2043-2046.

Marsigni

(61 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] German tribe settling ‘in the back of’, i.e. to the north or north-east of the Marcomanni and Quadi (Tac. Germ. 43,1). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography E. Schwarz, Germanische Stammeskunde, 1956, 164 G. Perl, Tacitus, Germania, in: J. Herrmann (Ed.), Griechische und lateinische Quellen zur Frühgeschichte Mitteleuropas bis zur Mitte des 1. Jahrtausends unserer Zeitrechnung, part 2, 1990, 245.

Nabalia

(181 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] River in the territory of the Batavi; in AD 70, a bridge over the N. was broken, so that Julius [II 43] Civilis and Petilius Cerialis could each stand on his respective side and negotiate at an appropriate distance (Tac. Hist. 5,26,1). The N. may be identifiable with the modern Lee between Lienden and Maurik in the Netherlands [3]. However, Tacitus may not have meant the river flowing between the warring pair at all, but may be referring only to a navalis (i.e. pons, ‘pontoon bridge’; [2]). It is also conceivable that Tacitus' N. is to be understood as the locat…

Nava

(222 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] A left hand tributary of the Rhine. It flows into the Rhine near Bingium (Auson. Mos. 1: ‘the rushing N.’), present-day Nahe. In early Roman times the Celtic Treveri tribe lived in the area of the N., where there is evidence of some oppida. Under Augustus the Germanic Vangiones were settled along the middle and lower N. The area was then added to the upper Germanic army district. The region by the upper reaches of the N. was part of Belgica. In the middle of the 5th cent. AD the Franci settled mainly in the lower valley of…

Usipetes

(202 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (also Usipi). Germanic tribe, presumably originally settled in the valley of the La(u)gona (modern Lahn), which was driven out by the Suebi in 58 BC. After crossing the Rhenus [2] (modern Rhine) they drove out the Menapii in 56/5 BC and subsequently advanced farther south. In 55 BC Caesar annihilated the U. and the Tencteri; previously he had unlawfully captured the leaders of the two tribes, and this led to to severe reactions in Rome (Caes. Gall. 4,1-16; 6,35,5; Plut. Caesar 22,…

Munimentum

(304 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] M. Traiani Emperor Iulianus [11] renewed the Munimentum Traiani, originally built at the behest of Trajan, during a campaign out of Mogontiacum in the autumn of AD 357 (Amm. Marc. 17,1,11). The Alamanni were compelled to provide food to the occupying troops when necessary. The identity of this Munimentum Traiani is disputed. Locations between the Main and the Neckar have been suggested, while recent scholarship has sought to present the Munimentum not as a fort but as a complete military installation, i.e. as the limes , with implications …
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