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Aleander, Girolamo

(301 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard L.
[German Version] (Feb 13, 1480, Motta di Livenza, Friaul – Feb 1, 1542, Rome), the son of a physician, was educated in Motta, Prodenone, Venice, and Padua; early on he learned Greek in addition to Latin; he also studied Aramaic and Syriac. In humanistic circles, Aleander was well-known and respected. Erasmus paved the way to France for him in 1508. In 1514, he…


(1,315 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin | Müller, Gerhard L.
[German Version] I. History – II. Modern Catholicism I. History Indulgences ( indulgentia as a fixed technical term since the early 13th cent.; previously also remissio, relaxatio, or absolutio generalis) are rooted in the early medieval system of scheduled penances (Repentance: IV), which allowed fixed forms of satisfaction to be replaced by other acts (“commutation”) or payment of a monetary sum (“redemption”), all meant to be equivalent. The new element in indulgences was the discontinuation of this required equivalenc…

Augsburg Interim

(531 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard L.
[German Version] is the designation for a decree by Charles V of Germany that provided a preliminary solution to the religion issue in Germany between (“interim”) the Augsburg Reichstag (Imperial Diet) of 1547/48 and the Council of Trent. Despite his victory over the Schmalkaldic League, the …