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Justice and Righteousness

(8,833 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart | Klaiber, Walter | Höffe, Otfried | Holmes, Stephen R. | Anzenbacher, Arno | Et al.
[German Version] I. Bible – II. Philosophy – III. History of Theology and Dogmatics – IV. Ethics – V. Law – VI. Social Politics, Social Ethics – VII. Missiology – VIII. Islam I. Bible 1. Ancient Near East and Old Testament The concept of justice in the ancient Near East and the Hebrew Bible is basically one of connectivity. It designates the positive relation of the king to the gods and to his people, of the individual to the various collectives ranging from the family to the entire nation, of the deed to the doer's well-being,…


(1,123 words)

Author(s): van den Broom, Luco J. | Anzenbacher, Arno
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics I. Dogmatics In the context of an ontology of substance, the “equality” of several things means that they possess the same (relevant) characteristics, so that they resemble or agree with one another. Equal things can thus have identical characteristics without being numerically identical. In the context of a relational ontology, equality means that …

Common Good

(984 words)

Author(s): Anzenbacher, Arno
[German Version] expresses the purpose of social interaction, either in a general sense or in the specific sense given to it by politics and law. Precision in the use of the concept of common good is of fundamental importance for any type of social ethics (Protestant social ethics), as the normative definition of society and of its subsystems is dependent upon it. The often unnuanced invoking of the common good (“an empty phrase”) brings discredit to this major concern. “Common good” (Lat. bonum commune) is the translation of the Greek τὸ κοινῇ συμφέρον/ to koinḗ symphéron. Aristotle emp…


(427 words)

Author(s): Anzenbacher, Arno
[German Version] Legitimacy relates to the justification of norms, institutions, legal entitlements, and claims to authority, together with their basis in moral and legal philosophy. With specific reference to the acceptance of authority (Dominion/Rule), M. Weber distinguished sociologically between traditional, charismatic, and rational or legal legitimacy. The discussion of the Sophists as to whether right is based solely on convention ( thései) or is established by nature ( phýsei) already distinguished between the positivistic reduction of legitimacy to lega…

Catholic Social Teaching

(1,565 words)

Author(s): Anzenbacher, Arno
[German Version] I. Assumptions – II. Catholic Social Teaching until Vatican II – III. Catholic Social Teaching since Vatican II – IV. Fundamental Concepts In the narrower sense, Catholic social teaching is the church's social teaching as expressed in texts issued by the teaching office; in the broader sense, it is their development in social ethics as a theological discipline. I. Assumptions The social question of the 19th century demanded of the church a theoretical orientation in addition to charitable engagement. This orientation was…


(878 words)

Author(s): Anzenbacher, Arno
[German Version] in general usage denotes the distinctive quality of a person's behavior, which may be good or bad, just or unjust. This qualification, originally applied to action as such, is extended to the attitudes, opinions (Virtues, Vices), and character of the persons acting, and beyond that to institutions (Norms, systems). The occurrence of morality presupposes that human action is doubly motivated: (a) empirically and through the senses (Desire/Lack of desire); and (b) from practical rea…