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(11,186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Et al.
Name of probably the most important Roman plebeian family. The similarity to the Etruscan name lecne and the links between the gens and Etruria in historical times (L. [I 7]) suggest an origin in that region [1. 108, n. 3]; the name may, however, also be of Latin origin ( Licinus). The spelling with a double ‘n’ occurs not only in the Greek form Λικίννιος ( Likínnios), but also in Latin inscriptions [1. 108, n. 1]. In the annalistic historical records dealing with the early Republic, members of the family appear among the earliest people's tribunes, reaching their polit…


(1,358 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentile name (less commonly Aquilius; see ThLL, 2,375), in the 5th cent. BC also patrician, but the bearers do not appear to be historical. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Aquillii fratres (end of the 6th cent. BC) Supposedly conspired against the newly established Republic and were executed (Liv. 2,4-5; Plut. Pobl. 4-7 [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] A. (Tuscus ?), C. Cos. 487 BC Consul in 487 BC, fought according to tradition against the Hernici and received an ovatio (Liv. 2,40,14; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,67,1; MRR 1,19-20).    Elvers, Ka…

Latin tragedy

(3,387 words)

Author(s): Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz)
Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz) [German version] A. Imperial Period (CT) [1; 15. 1; 16; 22] Tragedies were written for the stage in Rome until the beginning of the 1st cent. BC, but the old tragedies of Pacuvius, Ennius and Accius continued to be performed regularly into the Early Empire, and their staging grew increasingly opulent. The last documented performance of a new tragedy, Thyestes by P. Varius Rufus (29 BC), was already an isolated event. It is uncertain whether there was a staging of Ovid's Medea, the most famous Roman tragedy after Quintilian and Tacitus. There is no evi…


(5,938 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman nomen gentile of Sabine origin. Its members begin to appear in the sources late in the 3rd cent. BC. Politically the most important branch was that of the Terentii Varrones which attained the ranks of the nobility with T. [I 14] Varro, consul in 216 BC. From the mid-2nd cent., several families of this branch were in simultaneous and unconnected existence. Cognomina showing geographical origins are widespread among the Terentii (Afer, Lucanus, Massaliota). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] As people's tribune in 54 BC, T. prevented…


(415 words)

Author(s): Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz)
[German version] A term used by Varro - but not documented until Late Antiquity, by a quotation in Diom. 1,489,18 K - for Roman comedy based on Greek models (from the Latin pallium for himátion, the cloak-like wrap that was typical of traditional Greek dress, cf. Plaut. Curc. 288; in contrast to the togata, the comedy in the Roman toga); up to the end of the Republic mention was made only of comoedia or more generally of fabula. The literary theory of Late Antiquity (Diomedes [4], Donatus [3], Euanthius) provides valuable approaches to describing the genre. The first palliata was written by…


(9,319 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Suerbaum, Werner (Munich) | Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz)
Roman nomen gentile, attested from the 1st cent. BC evident mainly in Gallia Cisalpina (frequently confused with Verginius in MSS). The spelling Virgilius for the name of the poet Vergilius [4] is only documented from the 5th cent. AD onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] V. (less frequently: Verginius), C. Legate of Calpurnius [I 19] in Macedonia, 57-55 BC 57-55 BC; legate of Calpurnius [I 19] in Macedonia; depicted by Cicero (Prov. cons. 7) as an example of integrity in contrast with Piso. Perhaps (as in MRR 2,205) identical with V. [2]. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) …

Latin comedy

(7,023 words)

Author(s): Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz)
Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz) [German version] A. Imperial Era to Late Antiquity (CT) [13; 43] After Roman comedy ( comoedia palliata) had flourished for about a century, the creation of new comedies ceased around the middle of the 2nd cent. BC. For a few decades its place was taken by the bawdier Atellan farces, and then the still more down-to-earth mime, which, after a short literary phase in the time of Caesar, filled the theatres and improvised venues as a sub-literary form of entertainment until Late Antiquity. P…


(1,428 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family of little political significance except for L. M. [I 3], the destroyer of Corinth. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Author of Atellan farces, propably Augustan According to Pomponius Bononiensis and Novius [I 1], who presumably lived about 90 BC, M. revived the atellan farces, which had laid dormant for some time (Macrob. Sat. 1,10,3). His Old Latin metre (use of iambic shortening) and language (abl. testu) suggest that he probably did not write later than the Augustan period, during which other …


(232 words)

Author(s): Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz)
[German version] [1] One of four standard roles of the fabula Atellana One of four standard roles of the fabula   Atellana , the type of the glutton ( Manducus, Varro, Ling. 7, 95 Müller; Paul Fest. 115 L; representation as god of death in Etruscan graves), obscene (in Maccus Virgo) and clever hunchback (derived from dorsum). According to Horace (Epist. 2,1,173), he appeared edacibus in parasitis (among gluttonous parasites). His supposed epitaph alludes to his shrewdness (Sen. Ep. 89,7). In the Philosophia of Pomponius, he played the avaricious fortune-teller (p. 49 Frassin…


(5,501 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family probably deriving from the Italic praenomen Pompo, tracing back, like the Aemilii, Calpurnii and Pinarii, to one of the sons of Numa Pompilius (Plut. Numa 21,2; cf. Nep. Att. 1,1). In the 3rd century BC the Mathones (cf. P. [I 7-9]) achieved consulship, but later the family was insignificant. The most prominent member was a friend of Cicero, T. P. [I 5] Atticus. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Cn. People's tribune in 90 BC People's tribune in 90 BC, killed in the Civil War in 82; Cicero quite often heard him in his youth; his j…


(2,546 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Widespread plebeian gentilicium, verifiable since the 5th cent. BC, alternative form Ateilius, Greek Ἀτείλος, Ἀτίλλιος ( Ateílos, Atíllios; Schulze 151; 440; ThlL 2,1172f.). A M.A. under Tarquinius Priscus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,62,4) is fictional. The most important families are in the 3rd cent. BC the Atilii Reguli, in the 2nd and 1st cents. the Sarani (in the newer form Serrani). In the imperial era the significance of the bearers of this name declines in public life.   Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republic [German version] [I 1] Author of  palliata, 2nd cent. BC Author of  palli…

Archaism [Latin literature]

(549 words)

Author(s): Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz)
[German version] From the retrospective view of a later time, especially out of a classical feeling for style, language and style forms of an early epoch are designated as archaic. Archaism is the deliberate (usually stylistic-theory-led) maintenance of or return to obsolete, rare forms of language and style with the goal of unusual, mostly elevated effect, which works only when there is a certain intensification and extension to several areas of language (vocabulary, semantics, morphology, syntax…


(6,633 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Et al.
Name of a plebeian gens (probably derived from Caeculus, older form is Caicilios, Greek Καικίλιος, Κεκίλιος [ Kaikílios, Kekílios]; ThlL, Onom. 12-14), whose existence is documented since the 5th cent. (since C. [I 1]), but who only gained importance in the 2nd cent.; their most famous branch were the C. Metelli (I 10-32). A later explanation related the name back to Caeculus, the legendary founder of Praeneste, or Caecas, a companion of Aeneas (Fest. p. 38). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., Q. Supposedly people's tribune in 439 BC Supposedly people's tribune in 439 BC …


(94 words)

Author(s): Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz)
[German version] Atellana poet from the 2nd/1st cent. BC. The name, documented only once (Varro, Ling. 6,68) is dubious, although cf. Aprusius CIL XI 6712, 47; the numerous conjectures [2] were unable to gain acceptance. Cichorius replaced the proper name with the role name of parasitus. Varro (loc. cit.) cites an iambic septenarius typical of the Atellana (Terentianus Maurus 2395). Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz) Bibliography Editions: 1 CRF 273 2 P. Frassinetti, Atellanae Fabulae, 1967, 14, 95, 113. Literature: 3 Bardon 1, 164 f. 4 C. Cichorius, Zur Geschichte der Atellanendic…

Atellana fabula

(1,152 words)

Author(s): Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz)
[German version] (Term documented first since Cicero and Varro; later also Atellania, thus always Gellius). Originally Oscan farce, supposedly arose in Atella (Samnium) (Liv. 7,2; Val. Max. 2,4,4; Euanth. De com. p. 7 R.; Diom. 1,489f.; Tac. Ann. 4,14; Porphyrio ad Hor. Epist. 2,1,145). The affiliation with ludi not identified in the Augustan period (Str. 5,3,6) and the appearance of the manducus, who also belonged to the festive pompa (Varro, Ling. 7,95; Paul. Fest. 115 L), suggests origins in cultic use and the influence of the Etruscan cult of the dead. The g…

Archaismus [lateinische Literatur]

(501 words)

Author(s): Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz)
[English version] Als archa. werden Sprach- und Stilformen einer frühen Epoche aus dem Rückblick einer späteren Zeit, bes. aus klass. Stilempfinden heraus, bezeichnet. A. ist die absichtliche, meist von einer Stiltheorie geleitete Beibehaltung oder der Rückgriff auf veraltete, ungebräuchliche Sprach- und Stilformen mit dem Ziel ungewöhnlicher, meist erhabener Wirkung, effektiv nur bei einer gewissen Häufung und Ausdehnung auf mehrere Bereiche der Sprache (Lexikon, Semantik, Morphologie, Syntax), m…


(89 words)

Author(s): Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz)
[English version] Atellanendichter, 2./1. Jh. v. Chr. Der nur einmal belegte Name (Varro ling. 6,68) ist zweifelhaft, vgl. aber Aprusius CIL XI 6712,47; die zahlreichen Konjekturen [2] konnten sich nicht durchsetzen. Cichorius ersetzte den Eigennamen durch die Rollenbezeichnung parasitus. Varro (l.c.) zitiert einen für die Atellane typischen (Ter. Maur. 2395) iambischen Septenar. Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz) Bibliography Ed.: 1 CRF 273 2 P. Frassinetti, Atellanae Fabulae, 1967, 14, 95, 113. Lit.: 3 Bardon 1,164 f. 4 C. Cichorius, Zur Gesch. der Atellanendichtung, in: De…


(364 words)

Author(s): Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz)
[English version] Von Varro gebrauchte, aber - durch ein Zit. bei Diom. 1,489,18 K - erst spätant. bezeugte Bezeichnung der röm. Komödie nach griech. Vorbildern (von lat. pallium für himátion, den für die griech. Tracht typischen mantelartigen Überwurf, vgl. Plaut. Curc. 288; im Gegensatz zur Togata, der Komödie in der röm. Toga); bis zum E. der Republik sprach man nur von comoedia oder allg. von fabula. Die spätant. Lit.-Theorie (Diomedes [4], Donatus [3], Euanthius) liefert wertvolle Ansätze zur Gattungsbeschreibung. Die erste P. verfaßte Livius [III 1] An…


(4,971 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Köln) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eder, Walter (Bochum) | Et al.
Name einer röm. plebeiischen Familie wohl vom ital. Vornamen Pompo, die sich wie die Aemilii, Calpurnii und Pinarii auf einen der Söhne des Numa Pompilius zurückführte (Plut. Numa 21,2; vgl. Nep. Att. 1,1). Im 3. Jh. v. Chr. gelangte die Familie mit den Mathones (vgl. P. [I 7-9]) zum Konsulat, war aber später unbedeutend. Prominentester Angehöriger ist der Freund Ciceros, T. P. [I 5] Atticus. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] P., Cn. Volkstribun 90 v. Chr. Volkstribun 90 v. Chr., im Bürgerkrieg 82 ermordet; Cicero hörte ihn in seiner Jugend häufiger; sei…


(9,829 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Walde, Christine (Basel) | Et al.
Name der wohl bedeutendsten plebeischen Familie Roms. Die etr. Namensparallele lecne und die Verbindung der Gens nach Etrurien in histor. Zeit (L. [I 7]) deuten auf eine Herkunft aus dieser Region [1. 108, Anm. 3]; der Name kann aber auch lat. Ursprungs sein (Licinus). Schreibung mit n-Verdoppelung nicht nur in der griech Form Λικίννιος, sondern auch in lat. Inschr. [1. 108, Anm. 1]. In der annalist. Überl. zur Gesch. der frühen Republik erscheinen die Angehörigen unter den ersten Volkstribunen und erreichen mit dem Initiator der Licinisch-Sextischen Ges…
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