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Laelianus

(123 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] Imperator Caesar Ulp(ius) Cor(nelius) Laelianus (RIC V 2, 373 Nr. 8; [1. 66 Nr. 6]). Wohl Kommandeur der legio XXII Primigenia in Mogontiacum (Mainz) oder Statthalter der Prov. Germania superior, rebellierte Anf. 269 n.Chr. gegen Postumus und wurde zum Augustus erhoben. Postumus besiegte und tötete L. kurz darauf (Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,8; Eutr. 9,9; Iohannes Antiochenus fr. 152 FHG, hier fälschlich “Lollianus”); nach anderer Trad. (SHA trig. tyr. 4; 5; 6,3; 8,1) soll L. erst von Victorinus oder seinen eigenen Soldaten ermordet worden sein. Franke, Thomas (Bochu…

Regalianus

(152 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] Imp. Caesar P. C[...] R. Augustus (RIC V/2, 586 f.; [1]). Statthalter im Illyricum, wahrscheinlich dakischer Abstammung, wurde im J. 260 n. Chr. nach der Niederwerfung des Ingenuus [1] bei Mursa durch Aureolus von den Donautruppen zum Gegenkaiser des Gallienus ausgerufen (SHA trig. tyr. 10,1; Ps.-Aur. Vict. epit. Caes. 32,3; Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,2; Pol. Silv. chronica minora 1,521,45). Er kämpfte gegen die Sarmaten (Sarmatai), die bereits seit einiger Zeit die unteren Donauprovinz…

Felicissimus

(89 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] Leiter des Fiskus unter Aurelianus [3] (SHA Aurelian. 38,3), stiftete 271 oder 274 n.Chr. die Arbeiter zur Münzfälschung an. Als dies bekannt wurde, organisierte er einen Aufstand auf dem mons Caelius, den die kaiserlichen Truppen nur unter großen Verlusten niederschlagen konnten. F. fand dabei den Tod (Eutr. 9,14; Aur. Vict. Caes. 35,6; [Aur. Vict.] epit. Caes. 35,4; Suda s.v. μονιτάριοι). Polemius Silvius (Chron. min. 1, 521f. Mommsen) zählt ihn zu den Usurpatoren. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography PIR2 F 140 PLRE 1, 331f. 1 Kienast, 21996, 238.

Illyrische Kaiser

(142 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] Als I.K. wird eine Gruppe von röm. Herrschern bezeichnet, deren gemeinsames Merkmal ihre Herkunft aus dem illyrischen Raum, im weiteren Sinne das Gebiet zwischen der Adria und der unteren Donau, ist. Die Reihe beginnt bereits mit Decius [II 1] (249-251 n.Chr.), umfaßt aber im wesentlichen die Kaiser Claudius [III 2] Gothicus, Aurelianus [2], Probus, Diocletianus, Maximianus und Constantinus [1] I. Diesen Herrschern schrieb man bereits in der Ant. wenig Bildung, andererseits aber …

Hostilianus

(138 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] C. Valens H. Messius Quintus war der jüngere Sohn des Kaisers Decius [II 1] und der Herennia Etruscilla. Im Sept. 250 n.Chr. wurde er zum Caesar und princeps iuventutis ernannt (AE 1942/43, 55; ILS 518) und nach dem Tod seines Vaters im Juni 251 von Trebonianus Gallus adoptiert und zum Augustus erhoben (Zos. 1,25,1; RIC 4,3, 143ff.), wohl um von der Mitschuld des Trebonianus am Tode seines Vaters und Bruders abzulenken. Er starb kurz darauf in Rom an der Pest (Aur. Vict. Caes. 30,1; [Aur. Vict.] epit. Caes…

Odaenathus

(393 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(griech. Ὀδαίναθος, Odaínathos). [English version] [1] Mörder des Septimius O. [2] Ermordete - wohl im Frühjahr 267 n.Chr. - den Herrscher von Palmyra, Septimius O. [2], als dieser durch Kappadokien nach Herakleia [7] Pontika zog, um die Goten aus Kleinasien zu vertreiben. Er selbst wurde daraufhin von der Garde des Ermordeten getötet (Synk. 717). Dies steht jedoch im Widerspruch zu anderen Quellen, die einen consobrinus Maeonius (SHA trig. tyr. 15,5; 17,1) bzw. den Neffen des palmyren. Fürsten als Mörder nennen (Zon. 12,24 D.). Nach Zo…

Opellius

(151 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Kaiser, 3. Jh. n.Chr. Imp. Caes. M.O. (Antoninus) Diadumenianus, Sohn des Kaisers M.O. Macrinus, geb. am 14. oder 19. Sept. 208 n.Chr. (Cass. Dio 78,34,2; SHA Diad. 5,5). Anfang 217 erhielt er den Titel clarissimus puer (CIL XV 7505), kurz danach war er auch princeps iuventutis und nobilissimus Caesar (Cass. Dio 78,17,1; 19,1; Herodian. 5,4,12; Aur. Vict. Caes. 22,1; AE 1953,54; 1954,8; 1960,36; RIC IV, 2,22). Im Mai 218 nach dem Beginn der Truppenmeuterei in Raphanaea in Syrien verlieh ihm Macrinus die Augustuswürde (Cass.…

Salonina

(76 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] Iulia Cornelia S., Gattin des Kaisers Gallienus, 254 n. Chr. zur Augusta und mater castrorum erhoben (IGR 3, 237; AE 1982, 272; RIC V 1, 63; 105; 107-115; 191-200), zusammen mit ihrem Mann 268 n. Chr. vor Mediolanum [1] umgekommen (Zon. 12,25). Ihre drei Söhne waren P. Licinius Cornelius Valerianus, P. Licinius [II 6] Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus und Marinianus [3]. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 2, 222 f.  PIR2 C 1499  PLRE 1, 799.

Quartinus

(109 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] Titus (?) Q. war ein Freund des Kaisers Severus Alexander mit consularischem Rang. Nach dem gescheiterten, gegen Maximinus [2] Thrax gerichteten Usurpationsversuch des Magnus [2] 235 n. Chr. am Rhein wurde Q. von östl. Truppenteilen zum Gegenkaiser erhoben, wenig später aber auf Betreiben von Macedo [2] ermordet (Herodian. 7,1,4-11; SHA Maximini duo 11,2; fiktiv: SHA trig. tyr. 32). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 21996, 186 f.  X. Loriot, Les premières années de la grande crise du IIIe siècle: De l'avènement de Maximin le Thrace (235) à la …

Pescennius

(442 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imperator Caesar C.P. Niger Iustus Augustus, Roman emperor AD 193-194, of Italian origin, born between AD 135 and 140 in Aquinum (?) (SHA Pesc. Nig. 1,3). P. initially completed the equestrian cursus honorum: he was praefectus cohortis during the reign of Marcus [2] Aurelius and served twice as tribunus militum under Commodus (SHA Pesc. Nig. 4,2; 4,4), who admitted him to the Praetorian guard ( adlectus inter praetorios). Between AD 180 and 183, P. held the office of consul ( cos. suff., Hdn. 2,7,4; [1. 138; 2. 138f.]) and may have proved his military ability …

Sempronia

(272 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Daughter of Ti. Sempronius [I 15] Gracchus, 2nd cent. BC Daughter of Ti. Sempronius [I 15] Gracchus and Cornelia [I 1] (Plut., Ti. Gracchus 1,3), from 150 BC in a childless marriage with P. Cornelius [I 70] Scipio Aemilianus, for whose death in 129 BC she is supposed to have been partly to blame (App. B Civ. 1,20 (83); Liv. Per. 59). Despite the threatening demeanour of the people, in 102 or 101 BC she refused to acknowledge L. Equitius [1] as her nephew (Val. Max. 3,8,6). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography R. A. Bauman, Women and Politics in Ancient Rome, 1994, 48-50. …

Opellius

(160 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Emperor, 3rd cent. AD Imp. Caes. M.O. (Antoninus) Diadumenianus, son of the emperor M.O. Macrinus, born on 14 or 19 September 208 AD (Cass. Dio 78,34,2; SHA Diad. 5,5). At the beginning of 217 he was given the title of clarissimus puer (CIL XV 7505), shortly afterwards he was also princeps iuventutis and nobilissimus Caesar (Cass. Dio 78,17,1; 19,1; Herodian. 5,4,12; Aur. Vict. Caes. 22,1; AE 1953,54; 1954,8; 1960,36; RIC IV, 2,22). In May 218, after the beginning of the mutiny of troops in Raphanaea in Syria, Macrinus made him Au…

Hostilianus

(140 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] C. Valens H. Messius Quintus was the younger son of emperor  Decius [II 1] and Herennia Etruscilla. In September AD 250, he was named Caesar and Princeps Iuventutis (AE 1942/43, 55; ILS 518) and, after the death of his father in June 251, adopted by  Trebonianus Gallus and raised to Augustus (Zos. 1,25,1; RIC 4,3, 143ff.), probably to distract from the complicity of Trebonianus in the deaths of his father and brother. Shortly after, he died in Rome of the plague (Aur. Vict. Caes. 30,1; [Aur. Vict.] epit. Ca…

Triginta tyranni

(249 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] The fictitious author Trebellius Pollio uses the term triginta tyranni (TT) in the Historia Augusta to refer to 32 usurpers from all parts of the empire supposedly in the period of the emperors Valerianus [2] and Gallienus (253-268) in order to expose their rule as particularly week and bad. He increased the number that was first planned to be 20 (SHA Gall. 21,1) to 30 as an allusion to the Athenian Thirty Tyrants ( triákonta ) (SHA Trig. tyr. 2-31), among them esp. derisively (31,7) two women, Zenobia from Palmyra (30) and Victoria in…

Illyrian emperors

(156 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Term applied to a group of Roman rulers whose feature in common was the fact that they came from Illyrian territory, more broadly the area between the Adriatic and the lower Danube. The sequence already begins with  Decius [II 1] (AD 249-251) but essentially includes the emperors  Claudius [III 2] Gothicus,  Aurelianus [2],  Probus,  Diocletianus,  Maximianus, and  Constantinus [1] I. Even in antiquity these rulers were credited with having little education but they were acknowled…

Trebonianus Gallus

(248 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imp. Caes. C. Vibius T. Gallus Augustus (CIL XI 1927), Roman emperor from June AD 251 to August (?) AD 253. Born about 206 in Perusia, from a noble family (Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 31,1), Senator, cos. suff. c. AD 245 (Dexippus FGrH 100 F 22), governor of the province of Moesia inferior AD 250/1 [1. 103 f.]. At Novae[1], he successfully opposed the Goths (Goti) under their king Kniva (Iord. Get. 101 f.). Emperor Decius [II 1] escaped to him after being defeated by the Goths at Beroea[2]. Together they intended to cut off the Germans'…

Pertinax

(793 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] P. Helvius P., Roman Emperor 31 Dec. 192-28 Mar. 193. Born 1 Aug. AD 126 in Alba Pompeia in Liguria (SHA Pert. 1,2; 15,6; Cass. Dio 73,3,1), son of a freedman. After being educated as a grammaticus , he applied for a position as centurio with the assistance of L. Hedius Lollianus [4] Avitus (SHA Pert. 1,5; (Ps.-)Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 18). He received the rank of an eques ( equites Romani D) with the support of Claudius [II 54] Pompeianus, which allowed him to pursue an equestrian career. Around AD 160, still in the reign of Antoninus [1] Pius, he served as praefectus cohortis …

Macrinus

(520 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imperator Caesar M. Opellius Severus M. Augustus. Roman Emperor AD 217-218. Born in 164 (Cass. Dio 78,40,3) or 166 (Chron. pasch. I p. 498 D.) in Caesarea Mauretania, of humble origins (Cass. Dio 78,11,1; SHA Opilius Macrinus (= Macr.) 2,1). M. initially worked as a lawyer, then as procurator of the praef. praet. Fulvius [II 10] Plautianus, whose deposal he survived unharmed thanks to the intervention of L. Fabius [II 6] Cilo (Cass. Dio 78,11,2). Septimius Severus appointed him praefectus vehiculorum per Flaminiam (Cass. Dio 78,11,3), and in c. 208 keeper of the impe…

Cecropius

(43 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] C. was the prefect of a cavalry division (the ala Dalmatorum) and participated in the conspiracy against emperor  Gallienus, whom he murdered in AD 268 near Milan (SHA Gall. 14,4; 7ff.; Zos. 1,40,2). PIR2 C 595. Franke, Thomas (Bochum)

Furia Sabinia Tranquillina

(56 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Daughter of C.F. Sabinius Aquila Timesitheus, from AD 241 wife of  Gordianus [3] III, who installed her as Augusta shortly before his Persian War (SHA Gord. 23,5-6; Eutr. 9,2,2; Zos. 1,17; Zon. 12, 18 p. 129 D.; CIL VI 2114; 130). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography PIR2 F 587 Kienast, 21996, 197.
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