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Olympios

(366 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
(Ὀλύμπιος). [English version] [1] Hofarzt Constantius' [2] II., 4. Jh. Arzt, Freund (und Schüler?) des Libanios, den er 354 n.Chr. wegen Kopf- und Nierenschmerzen behandelte. In den beiden darauffolgenden Jahren besuchte er Rom, von wo aus er nach Konstantinopolis zurückkehrte und Hofarzt von Constantius [2] II. wurde (Lib. epist. 51; 65; 353; 534; 539). Nutton, Vivian (London) [English version] [2] Amtsträger (4.Jh. n. Chr.) O. aus Antiocheia, um 355 n.Chr. consularis(?) Macedoniae, Senator erst in Rom, dann (ab 358) in Konstantinopel, wo er 361 Befreiung von munera ( munus

Pinianus

(216 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] [1] Praefectus urbi Romae 385-387 n. Chr. 385-387 n.Chr. praefectus urbi Romae, vom Senat 395 mit Postumianus zum Gesandten an Kaiser Valentinianus II. bestellt, um wegen einer Teuerung Hilfe zu erbitten. Um die Wahl eines weiteren Gesandten Paulinus kam es zum Streit. Wahrscheinlich Vater oder Onkel von P. [2]. PLRE 1, 702 (P. 1). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [English version] [2] christl. Asket 4./5. Jh. Neffe oder Sohn von P. [1], 396 n.Chr. im Alter von 16 oder 17 J. mit der jüngeren Melania [2] verheiratet, die ihn nach dem…

Praeses

(146 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] (wörtlich: “Vorsitzender”) wurde im 2. und 3. Jh. n. Chr. als lat. Titel zuerst zur bes. Ehrung von Statthaltern gebraucht, setzte sich dann im amtlichen Sprachgebrauch zunächst für ritterliche procuratores durch und wurde im Gefolge der Neuordnung der Verwaltung unter Diocletianus und Constantinus [1] I. zum Sondertitel für die unterste Gruppe der Provinzstatthalter nach den consulares und correctores , v. a. in den vielen kleinen neugeschaffenen Prov.; allerdings wechselte die Rangstufenfolge. In der Notitia dignitatum sind für …

Mercurinus

(98 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] (besser bekannt als Auxentius von Durostorum in Moesia). Schüler des Gotenbischofs Ulfila, vielleicht selbst Gote. M. mußte 380 n.Chr. nach dem Edikt des Theodosius I. über die Rückgabe der Kirchen an die Orthodoxen seinen Bischofssitz aufgeben. Kurz darauf wurde er zum arianischen Bischof von Mailand geweiht (Arianismus). Er war Gegner des Ambrosius; er besaß großen Einfluß am Hof Valentinianus' II. Erh. ist seine Schrift ‘Vom Leben und Tod des Ulfila ( De vita et obitu Ulfilae). (PL Suppl. 1, 703-707). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliograph…

Nannienus

(133 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] Comes rei militaris des Valentinianus I., kämpfte 370 n.Chr. gegen die Sachsen. 378 besiegte er gemeinsam mit dem comes domesticorum Mallobaudes im Dienst des Gratianus [2] die Alamannen (Lentienses) bei Argentaria (nahe Colmar; Amm. 31,10,6f.). Da er gleichrangig ( pari potestate) mit Mallobaudes war, war er vielleicht comes utriusque Germaniae. Er ist wohl identisch mit dem magister militum Nanninus, der 388 gemeinsam mit Quintinus als Feldherr des Magnus Maximus [7] die Vormundschaft für dessen Sohn Victor übernahm, die Franken im K…

Flacilla

(87 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] Aelia Flavia F. Erste Frau des Kaisers Theodosius I.; aus der ca. 376 n.Chr. geschlossenen Ehe gingen drei Kinder hervor: die späteren Kaiser Arcadius und Honorius sowie Pulcheria. 379 wurde F. zur Augusta ernannt. Die überzeugte Anhängerin des nicaenischen Christentums (Soz. 7,6; Theod. hist. eccl. 5,19) galt als fromm und mildtätig. Als sie 386 in Skotumis (Thrakien) starb, hielt Gregorios [2] von Nyssa die Leichenrede (PG 46, 877-892). Ihre Statue wurde im Senatsgebäude aufgestellt (Them. or. 19,228b). PLRE 1, 341f. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Ma…

Primicerius

(146 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] Wörtlich “der erste” ( primus) auf der “Wachstafel” ( cera), einer Stammrolle, bezeichnet p. den Vorsteher eines Büros ( officium) oder einer Abteilung in mil. und zivilen röm. Dienststellen (Kanzlei). Primicerii gab es u. a. bei den domestici et protectores ( domesticus ), den duces ( dux ), in den scholae und fabricae des magister officiorum , unter den Ämtern am Hof (C.) und in der Zentralverwaltung sowie in der schola notariorum. Die Rangstufe des p. hing von seiner Tätigkeit ab. Sehr angesehen war der dem praepositus sacri cubiculi unterstellte p. sacri cubiculi. Pr…

Quintinus

(66 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] was magister equitum per Gallias under Magnus Maximus [7], who entrusted his son Victor to him in AD 387. Q. was killed in 388 during an advance east of the Rhine near Neuss against the advice of Nannienus. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography PLRE 1, 760  P. Richardot, Un désastre romain peu connu sur le Rhin, in: Riv. storica dell' antichità 25, 1995, 111-130.

Valentinus

(500 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Christian theologian and poet, 2nd cent. Christian theologian, probably from Egypt, taught in c. AD 140-160 in Rome ( cf. Iren. adv. haereses 3,4,3). He wanted, possibly, to become episcopus ( epískopos ), but was turned down (Tert. adv. Valentinianos 4,1 ff.); afterwards, he must have lived in Cyprus (Epiphanius, Panarion 31,7,2). Besides a few extant fragments from sermons and letters, a work entitled 'On the three natures' ( Perì triôn phýseōn) is known to have existed. V. apparently wrote psalms in verse form; a fragment (in Hippolytus, Refutatio omnium haer…

Tribunus

(1,975 words)

Author(s): de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
(Formed from the word tribus with the suffix - unus, which indicates a person of superordinate authority); the administrative and/or military leader of a tribus ; pl.: tribuni. [German version] [1] Tribunus aerarius Presumably originally aides to the Roman magistrates, charged by the state treasury ( aerarium ) with paying the wages of the soldiers of their tribus  (Soldiers' pay). Tribuni aerarii were perhaps also headmen of their tribus. They may have been active in financial matters into the 1st cent. BC, and were subject to distraint ( pignus ), which indic…

Timasius

(168 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Flavius T., an officer under Valens [2], in AD 385 cos., in 386 comes et magister equitum, 388-395 magister equitum et peditum, and in 388 he led the infantry in a war with Maximus [II 7]. He took part in the conflicts between Theodosius [II 2] and Ambrosius over the synagogue in Callinicum, which had been destroyed by Christians. In 389, T. was cos. II. In 391, when he had to fight bands of Goths in Thrace, he came into conflict with Rufinus [II 3] and shortly afterwards fell into disgrace. In 394, however, he was commander-in-chief with Stil…

Theodosius

(3,100 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεοδόσιος/ Theodósios). [German version] [I 1] Greek mathematician and astronomer, 2nd/1st cent. BC Greek mathematician and astronomer. Folkerts, Menso (Munich) [German version] I. Life and works According to Str. 12,4,9, T. was one of the most important men in Bithynia; the birthplace Tripoli given in the Suda (s. v. Θ.) may relate to another T. As Strabo also names T.’ sons as important mathematicians, T. must belong in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC, or, at the latest, the 1st half of the 1st. …

Valerianus

(929 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Q. Cornelius V. Author of an antiquarian compilation, 1st cent. Roman equestrian of the 1st cent. AD (probably c.45 praef. vexillariorum in Thracia). Author of an antiquarian compilation mentioned by Plinius [1] (Pliny the Elder) as source of books 3 (?), 8, 10, 14 and 15 of his Naturalis historia, and quoted at 3,108 (?), 10,5 and 14,11. Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht Bibliography PIR2 C 1471. [German version] [2] P. Licinius V. Roman emperor 253-260, born 199 (thus the gist of Ioh. Mal. 12 p. 298; SHA Valer. 5,1 is false); from a noble family (Aur. V…

Volusianus

(331 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Roman emperor AD 251-253 Imp. Caes. C. Vibius Afinius Gallus Veldumnianus V. P. F. Invictus Aug. (RIC 4,3, 173-189). Roman emperor from the middle of AD 251 until the middle of 253. Born c. 230 in Perusia (?), the son of Trebonianus Gallus and Afinia Gemina Baebiana. After the battle of Abritus against the Goths and the death of Decius [II 1], the legions proclaimed him and his father emperor in June 251 (Eutr. 9,5; Zon. 12,21 D.); at the same time, he was appointed Caesar by his father (Aur. Vict. Caes. 30)…

Magnentius

(353 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Flavius Magnus M., usurper, Roman emperor, AD 350-353. Born in Amiens c. 303, of non-Roman origin, not Christian. M. entered a military career and made it to the rank of comes . The comes rerum privatarum Marcellinus [5] incited him to conspire against Constans [1]: On 18 January 350, M. revolted in Autun (Aur. Vict. 42; Zos. 2,42); Constans was killed. By the end of February, M. was recognized as emperor in northern Italy, and thereafter in the entire West and in Africa as well. In the Danube reg…

Marcellinus

(1,752 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκελλῖνος; Markellînos). [German version] [I 1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses, 2nd cent. AD?, [1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses. His reference to followers of Archigenes suggests the late 1st or 2nd cent. AD as the earliest date of its composition. A more precise dating would be possible if he were the author of a recipe quoted by Galen (De compositione medicamentorum secundum locos 7,5 = 13,90 K.) from Andromachus [5] the Younger, but the identification is uncertain. M.'s …

Galla

(598 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] First wife of Julius Constantinus [4] 1st half 4th cent. AD First wife of Julius Constantius [4], a son of emperor Constantius [5] I. She was mother of Constantius Gallus, Caesar from AD 351-354 (Amm. Marc. 14,11,27). PLRE 1, 382 (G. 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Youngest daughter of Valentinianus I Youngest daughter of  Valentinianus I, sister of Valentinianus II. In AD 387 she fled, together with him and her mother Iustina, from the usurper Maximus to Constantinople, where she married Theodosius I (their da…

Faustina

(799 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Annia Galeria Aurelia F. Daughter of Marcus Arelius, born after AD 151 Daughter of Marcus Aurelius and F. [3]. Born probably AD 151 [1. 108, 247; 2. 161], married to Cn. Claudius [II 62] Severus, cos. II 173. Her son was Ti. Claudius [II 65] Severus Proculus, cos. ord. 200. PIR2 C 1028. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 A. R. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 21988 2 W. Ameling, Die Kinder des Marc Aurel..., in: ZPE 90, 1992, 147-166. [German version] [2] Annia Galeria F. Wife of Antoninus Pius Wife of Emperor  Antoninus [1] Pius. Daughter of  Annius [II 15] Verus, cos. III A…

Vir clarissimus

(273 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (or clarissimus vir = c.v., literally approximately a 'highly regarded man'; Greek lamprótatos, attested from c. AD 160; until the 3rd cent. AD also krátistos). In the (late) Republican Period a general senatorial honorary attribute; in the Imperial Period VC developed into a title of rank for members of the senatorial class (Senatus). Up to the early 2nd cent. AD it became a fixed title for senators (until the 4th cent. it was c.v.) which from the 2nd cent. was also transferred to their relatives ( clarissima femina, c. iuvenis, c. puer, c. puella). As a rule women lost …

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …
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